I was in a panel discussion with Fred Hargadon, the former retired Princeton and Stanford Dean of Admissions [PDF] - Free online publication (2023)

I was in a panel discussion with Fred Hargadon, the former retired Princeton and Stanford Dean of Admissions [PDF] - Free online publication (1) juramento de karimi|Descargar|embedded HTML

  • April 27, 2015
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1Introduction Why another book on college admissions? This is not a recipe for getting the best students into the best universities, as it describes much of what is written on the subject. First of all, most young people are not the best students. Most of those who go through the college process are just trying to find a good fit, a college that best meets their needs and goals. And most parents want the best for their children. However, the prevailing sentiment seems to be that parents need to be closely involved in this process, from hiring SAT tutors and private counselors to lobbying teachers and coaches to give their children that extra edge. What parents need to do most, however, is support and protect their children while allowing them to grow. I push my young son around the neighborhood on his tricycle equipped with a handle on the back. At first, he needed to help him drive the trike because he had no idea how to do it. However, I soon realized that the only way to help him learn to drive was to allow him to start pulling off the curb on his own. He soon learned how to correct himself and follow a straight course. I'm still right behind him, keeping him from getting hurt going off the sidewalk or into oncoming traffic, but I no longer steer or control his bike. He knows that I am there and he finds safety and comfort in the fact that I will protect him from danger. But he also knows that it is he who directs and controls the motorcycle. As time goes by, he will start riding his bike without me being there. This is the same role that parents must assume in the college admissions process. At the very least, they should be there to make sure their children don't hurt themselves, for example, by missing deadlines that would jeopardize their acceptance into college. Also, they need to be there to support their children, who will make some of the most difficult decisions of their lives up to this point. While there will be many other major lifelong decisions, from choosing a spouse to selecting a job, this will be the first time in most children's lives when they will have to make a lasting decision about their future. This book is an attempt to describe a sensible approach to college admission. It is a tool that allows you to understand what is happening in the process and helps you recognize when to intervene and, more importantly, the security of knowing when not to. As I recently heard a student say: It's hard raising parents these days. One college admissions director pointed out that the increasingly bad parental etiquette that college admissions officers are currently seeing stems from a confluence of several characteristics of our Boomer generation, such as our sense of entitlement, our suspicion of authority, and our wrongdoing. habit of living too vicariously through our children. Harvard's Dean William Fitzsimmons makes a similar point: Sports, music, and other recreational activities used to provide a welcome break. No more. In high school, preparing for the SAT has become a way of life. The problem can often be well-intentioned but misguided parents trying to mold their children into an image of success that they value; and their children, moldable as they are, often join and accept the programs before they have the capacity to make that decision for themselves. A child's release moves everyone in the family, notes high school counselor Michael G. Thompson. For parents it is the culmination of raising their children, the end of the parental relationship.

2Curriculum. As of now, if you are acting as a parent to a child who is college-age or older, it will be by invitation only. What's the main testing ground for fears about incomplete or inadequate parenting: the college admissions process, says counselor Michael Thompson. If you are afraid that you have not disciplined your children enough, Dr. Spock too much or allowed your children to watch too much television and settle for low grades, and the child refuses to fill out their college application forms, the incriminating evidence of parents failure is right there, in front of everyone. It is during the meeting with the college counselor at the end of the junior year, when all the chickens come home to sleep, painfully and publicly. The frantic involvement of many parents in the process is, from my perspective, a cover for this deep parental anxiety: Did I do a good job with this child? Did I do everything I had to do for this child? Is this kid ready? Is this child going to have a good life? I have seen many liberal parents, not very obvious in their tenth and eleventh grade years, come back into their children's lives at the time of college admission, trying to focus all their wisdom and discipline on helping their children in the last moment. Parents may need to make sure when their chicks leave the nest that they have really been taught to fly. Since it's impossible to assess the quality of what parents have done for their children right now, what's the next best thing? What comes closest to qualifying as a parent: the status of the college the child is admitted to.1 Does it really matter in life which college one goes to? Yes and no. Late adolescence is an important time in one's life, a time to try out new personalities and ways of thinking. Psychologist Erik Erikson called it a psychosocial moratorium, a time when you try to be who you want to be without the same consequences you might see later in life. As long as students follow my axiom: Do nothing that will kill you, there is little one can do that has permanent consequences. College is a time when one must be around people with a variety of backgrounds and opinions, and with people with a similar degree of intellectual curiosity. That, for almost all students, can happen at hundreds of universities. Many students feel that they can only be successful in life if they attend one of the 23 colleges that admit less than 50% of their students and have average SAT scores over 1900. I hear repeatedly that this will have a magical impact on the future of students. career. My experience, as someone who has worked in the field, hired others, and interned in the personnel offices of some of the largest corporations in the world, is that this is simply not true. It can have an impact in some very limited situations. However, in virtually all other cases, employers want to see what he has done in previous jobs, where he went to graduate school, and what skills and talents he brings to the table. A similar case concerns the belief that the contacts one makes at these elite colleges will open doors for one. You may have heard or read that a political appointee was a college friend of the governor or president, but this is rare. I ask you to review your personal experience and think of examples where attending one college over another had a profound impact on someone's life or career. I doubt you'll find cases where this is true. 1 Thompson, Michael G. Independent School, Winter 1990, v. 49, number 2, p. 13 2

3College Admission in Numbers2 Everything you read in newspapers and magazines or hear on TV or radio about college admissions will lead you to believe that it is almost impossible to get admitted to college unless you are very strong academically, have high test scores, have rich and/or famous parents, or have more "game" than anyone else around. This is not like this. Let's take a look at some numbers: 3,600 There are about 3,600 two-year and four-year colleges in the US 1,600 About 1,600 of these are two-year colleges. Virtually all (with the exception of a literal hand full) are open admission, meaning they admit anyone with a high school diploma. 2,000 That leaves about 2,000 four-year colleges. About 300-400 of these are open admission, which means that when combined with two-year colleges, anyone who graduates from high school has at least 2,000 colleges willing to offer them admission. A few hundred more admit more than 95% of those who apply. 135 The general public tends to view "selective" admission as meaning that a college admits fewer than 50% of those who apply. Colleges don't see it that way, and call themselves selective as long as they don't admit EVERYONE who applies. Only about 135 universities admit less than 50% of their applicants. 50 The figure of 135 does not take into account ACADEMIC expectations, but what percentage of the total applicants are admitted. If we look at colleges that admit less than 50% of their applicants AND have freshman SAT averages of 1250 or higher (on a scale of 1600), the number of colleges drops to 50.24 The media tends to focus on looking at the admission to the nation's "best elite, most demanding, and most demanding universities" as measured by acceptance rates and academic profiles of freshmen. This tends to narrow the scope of vision to colleges that admit less than 25% of those who apply and that report freshman SAT averages of 1250 or higher. This leaves only around 24 universities. Given the large number of excellent colleges and universities that do not fall into these three elite groups, selectivity alone is not an accurate measure of quality. The reality is that there are now more and better college options available to students than at any time in our history. 2 By the numbers, Edward T. Custard, Master's Degree 3

4Although increasingly expensive from an admissions perspective, higher education is more accessible than ever to a broader range of people. Some thoughts on admissions: When there are multiple sections of the same course with random distributions of students, there are sometimes teachers who, year after year, have substantially higher student failure rates than other teachers. These teachers almost always respond that they simply hold higher standards. But he notices that there are other teachers who seem to maintain high standards with significantly fewer failures. One cannot help but come to the conclusion that it is not just the students who are failing, but the teacher is failing the students, both literally and figuratively. And the same goes for the outrageously low admission rates achieved by the most selective universities. Admitting less than 10% of students applying should not be a source of pride but shame. Selectivity is measured by the popularity rather than the quality of the incoming class. o Undergraduate education experience is clearly something that rewards failure over success. The method used by rankings and the media to determine the top of the heap exacerbates this trend. A real success in college admissions would be a very high admission rate along with a high quality class. How do you do that? The University of Chicago has done this for years by submitting essay questions that discourage those who are not scholars or intellectuals from applying. There is an alternative philosophy, that of making the application relatively easy to complete. in order to find that "diamond in the rough," that kid in a rural Midwestern state, who is relatively unsophisticated but genuinely bright, who could, but never would, answer the Chicago solicitation questions. But to find that kid encouraging 100 otherwise ineligible applicants to apply is simply outrageous. Many in the media have denounced the Common Application as the cause of this trend of increasing 'ghost' applications. I have to admit, I was originally surprised when I heard that U. Chicago, the university that prided itself on the uncommon app, was jumping on the bandwagon. But then I realized that they were just simplifying the data entry and keeping the complexity where it should be. Criticizing students or the Common Application for the increasing number of applications entering colleges is a red herring. If universities, the media, and the rankings really accepted the reality that a declining admissions rate is really a failure of the admissions process and took genuine steps to address it, the tide would change. But doing so would require integrity, concern for students, and a genuine desire to move to a healthier process. I don't think the media or most universities with these low admission rates have the stomach for this. What could they do to achieve this? How about denying more kids an early decision or, as Northwestern does, only having two ED decisions, admit or deny? How about demanding more thoughtful and complex essays? How about just returning the clearly unrealistic applicants' applications and application fees? How about a greater understanding of the admissions process, such as the mark sheets used? How about going to truly rolling admissions? The time when many members of the Ivy League announced their decisions, 5:59 p.m. m. on May 1, it seemed more like the announcement of the winners of American Idol than the result of a thoughtful process. 4

5Chapter 1: The State of Admissions A Recent History of College Admissions Until the early 1980s, the college admissions process was fairly straightforward. Almost all the universities promoted themselves through their publications, mainly the sight book, sent to students who had expressed interest in the university, and by direct mail. Colleges would purchase lists of names from the College Board of those students who took the PSAT or SAT (or from the American College Testing program for students who took the PLAN or ACT) and met some demographic or test score criteria. Selection for admissions was generally based on academic factors, with preference often given to the children of alumni, athletes, or individuals with other special talents and, to a much more limited degree than today, to those from underrepresented minority groups. Financial aid was provided to help families in need cover the cost of education. There was only one form that almost all colleges and the federal government used to analyze financial need and award financial aid, the FAF (Financial Aid Form). There was a standard formula that took into account a number of factors (income, cost of living, parental age, savings, equity, etc.) and used a number of standard tables to determine what a family could afford. colleague. This formula, the Standard Methodology, produced a figure, the Family Contribution, that was the same for all colleges to which a student applied. Financial need was the cost of college minus the family contribution. Most colleges, and virtually all highly selective colleges, have agreed to meet 100% financial need, meaning that through a series of grants and loans, they would meet the full financial need of all applicants. So, if the FAF determines that a family can afford $5,000 for college and college costs $15,000, most selective colleges would give students a financial aid package totaling $10,000. Universities would use preferential packages, awarding financial aid packages with higher grants, which did not have to be repaid, and fewer loans to the students who wanted the most. The National Association for College Admission Counseling (NACAC), the organization that governs most college admissions, prohibited colleges from using financial need to determine whether a student would be admitted. This policy, accepted by virtually all universities, was called need-blind admissions. And the cost of college had risen less than the cost of living over the previous two decades and was affordable for the average upper-middle-class family. A demographic shift occurred in the early 1980s with a commercial drop in the number of students graduating from high school. Even the most selective colleges began to struggle to maintain the quality and number of applications they received. A new phenomenon emerged on the admissions front, the Enrollment Manager. Before that, admissions directors controlled the marketing of universities and the selection of students. Financial aid directors determined what financial aid was awarded to students, usually based on FAF figures. Typically, both reported to the president of the university or to someone else not directly involved in admissions. In the most common enrollment management model that has emerged, the director of admissions and the director of financial aid reported to the vice president of enrollment management. At this point, you may be wondering how these demographic, financial, and internal management and admissions practices could mean anything to you. Decisions made by universities, the federal government, NACAC, and the media over the past 25 years have increased the hype, manipulation, uncertainty, and ultimately mania around college admissions and costs. 5

6Universities made a series of decisions that had a significant impact on students and parents. Several publications, most notably US News and World Report, were beginning to rank colleges, prompting enrollment managers to lobby for high rankings. These rankings were generally greatly affected by the percentage of students accepted, the standardized test scores of those admitted, and the number of students who accepted offers of admission. Therefore, universities began to aggressively search for as many applicants as they could, simply to appear more selective by turning down more and more students. The harder it became to get into college, the more students wanted to apply. And as the number of applicants increased in the 1990s, the strategy to maintain the status quo became a scarcity frenzy. The most selective colleges were starting to see admission rates in their teens, and the media jumped on the bandwagon. The Groucho Marx phenomenon became the rule for college admissions. It seemed that no one wanted to apply to a university that would admit them. Students and parents began to hire their version of Enrollment Managers at universities. SAT preparation has become a rite of passage for many communities and the growth in the use of private college counselors has grown exponentially. A consultant now charges more than $30,000 for her college counseling services. Recently, Michelle Hernandez, a former admissions counselor at Dartmouth, offered a three-day college admissions boot camp for $10,000. It was on the financial front that even bigger changes were taking place. As financial aid budgets continued to grow, there was increasing pressure from college presidents and boards to increase revenue and reduce costs. Beginning in the 1980s, university officials began to realize that there was a much higher elasticity of demand for universities than they had assumed—that is, that costs could continue to rise without parents abandoning their children. keep applying for expensive and prestigious colleges. Thus, years of increases below the cost of living were followed in the nearly thirty years that followed by tuition increases well above inflation. Universities needed more and more money to be competitive: to build state-of-the-art science buildings, dormitories, libraries, and sports complexes, to stay ahead of technology, to stay in the market for the best professors, to satisfy the needs of financial aid recipients and to attract the best students with merit scholarships not tied to financial need. College tuition at the most expensive colleges (nearly all college tuition at these schools rose at about the same cost and rate) topped the $20,000 mark, then the $30,000 mark, then the $40,000 mark, seemingly without an end in sight. The cost of college each year exceeded the income year after year. To increase revenue, all selective colleges began to aggressively promote themselves both nationally and internationally. Universities began to travel and market directly to areas where they had never sought students before and began actively seeking international students, to whom they rarely offered financial aid. Then a shock wave went through the admissions world. One of the most selective colleges announced that while they were still need-blind, they could not guarantee that they would remain so. This was soon followed by a pronouncement from one of the most prestigious women's colleges of a specific policy to drop necessity-blind admissions: students who were of very high need and marginal in the group would be denied. NACAC backed down, after much infighting, from requiring universities to be need-blind in their admissions policies. Universities thought they had a fair solution to the problem of escalating financial aid budgets: enact a policy that only affected a very small number of applicants. the problem of 6

7parents was one of definition. What was a marginal applicant? Wasn't admission an inaccurate process where, at the most selective colleges, almost no one had high admission security? And what was the high need? Parents became increasingly concerned about not only whether they could afford college, but also whether simply applying for aid would jeopardize their child's chances of admission. Need Blind Admissions was replaced by the cynically named Need Aware Admissions. A federal government decision around the same time had an equally negative effect on parents' ability to predict college costs. The government has given special consideration in its tax code to homeowners. Mortgage interest and residential property taxes are deductions from income. The government decided to make the same decision on fair housing in the federal financial aid award: fair housing was no longer in the formula for determining financial need. A new form, the FAFSA, the Free Application for Federal Financial Aid, was developed to reflect this new policy. Unfortunately, the high-cost, high-tuition universities wanted fair housing data. Thus was born the College Boards CSS Profile, where each college would have its own formula for determining need. Fewer and fewer universities were coming together, with financial aid, even with their own calculations of what a family could afford. The previous standard of meeting 100% financial need was replaced with a gap policy where 90%, 80% or even 70% of financial need was met. In addition, more and more universities were offering needless scholarships to compete for the most talented students, often at the expense of need-based aid. So we went from a relatively predictable admissions and financial aid system to one of near-total unpredictability. At the most selective colleges, admission rates are in the single digits. In 2007, Harvard admitted less than nine percent of its applicants. Stanford admitted fewer than 16% of students with high school A's or who were in the top 10% of their high school class and admitted only 20% with a perfect score of 800 on the math SAT and at 28% of those with a perfect score of 800 verbal. Universities have continued the aggressive marketing begun at a time of declining enrollment as the children of baby boomers have increased the number of students applying to college to record numbers. Now, a system with total uncertainty has replaced a completely predictable one. Financial aid awards to the same students applying to similarly priced and gifted universities began to differ by tens of thousands of dollars. More and more poor students were denied simply because they were poor. Enrollment management companies began advising colleges on how to use financial aid to get students enrolled. Financial Aid Leverage used complex demographic analysis to guide financial aid. If it were found, for example, that Asian students were likely to enroll if they were awarded automatic $2,000 scholarships, that would become policy. Prior to the 1990s, a parent with a given income and assets could almost completely predict what level of financial aid he would receive. There were tables available to the public that determined the contribution of the parents to the FAF. Most high-cost colleges have agreed to use this figure to determine financial aid and have agreed to cover 100% of need. Thus, a student applying to five colleges could reasonably expect to get the same level of financial aid with only a small variation between them in the grant-to-loan ratio. With the introduction of the CSS Profile, the abandonment of need-blind admissions and the satisfaction of 100% of financial need and 7

8proliferation of merit scholarships and leverage of financial aid, all predictability of financial aid was lost. At the same time, cost increases at public universities far exceeded the increase in financial aid from the federal and state governments for poor students. Except for public community colleges, even many public colleges are no longer affordable for poor and middle-class parents. Tail Wagging the Dog: A Process Perspective Tail Wagging the Dog I heard in a library in a wealthy suburb of New Jersey: Girl A: Did you hear that Jake had cancer? Girl B: Yes. But I heard that he is now in remission. Girl A: He's so lucky that he has a great college essay to write. As a counselor, I can see firsthand how preparing for college admissions profoundly and negatively affects the way many of our children grow up. At a recent event where I was on a panel on the college admissions process with the former dean of admissions at Princeton, a girl stood up to ask a question. She began by telling the audience that her name was Ivy because her parents wanted her to attend an Ivy League university and that she attended a preschool called Little Ivy Leaguers. I have a pretty good idea of ​​what a girl like Ivy's day looks like. She starts her school day at 7 am so she can include AP Economics in addition to the five AP she has in her regular schedule. She plays violin in her orchestra during elective period. She goes to crew practice right after school. Her afternoons are spent doing homework, doing some SAT prep problems, and practicing the violin (when she's not attending Latin Club or Key Club events). She instant messages a few friends from midnight to one before collapsing to start the next day. Weekends and summers are spent at sports camps, SAT prep courses, and what is perceived as mandatory volunteer work. She has been thinking about the university she wanted to go to for as long as she can remember and consumes thoughts of it every day. Her parents have lived vicariously through her all of her life and have been very involved in all aspects of her life. She feels the pressure to please her parents and meet her high expectations. Marilee Jones, a former dean of admissions at MIT, views college admissions as a mental health issue. She discusses the generational causes of this mania, describing baby boomers as overly involved, busy parents who don't trust authority but love experts, and her millennials as the more anxious, stressed-out generation. , deprived of sleep, tried and tested in history. a generation trained to please adults. This phenomenon cannot be attributed entirely to neurotic, high-achieving baby boomers; there are other factors at play. As mentioned above, the 1980s saw a drop in the number of high school graduates, prompting universities to employ sophisticated enrollment management techniques to increase popularity. Now that baby boomers have joined the ranks of high school graduates, techniques appropriate for an era of student shortages couldn't be more damaging. Marketing College Admissions 8

9it has resulted in education being seen as a product rather than a process and students as consumers rather than learners. As looking awesome has become more important than being awesome, substance has taken a backseat to reputation and status. Much of the media coverage has been a destructive force in this process. The US News and World Report rankings, eagerly awaited by parents each year, have helped colleges create an even greater aura of avoidance. Relying on input statistics such as average test scores and acceptance rates as major components in their rankings have induced universities to search for more and more applicants just to simply have more to turn down. These publications encourage bad practices for universities and worse for students. High school for many has become a time to strategize rather than experiment. Many independent and school counselors who boast about their ability to package students and achieve Ivy League results exacerbate this. Recently, in a story reported by both the Washington Post and the Bergen Record, a private college counselor advised clients that his daughter would have a better chance of being admitted to an Ivy League school if they moved to another city and they enrolled her in a local school. beauty contest. They followed his advice. The result: his daughter was accepted to Yale. This type of coverage reinforces the idea that drastic measures are necessary and justified to gain admission to highly selective institutions. One can only wonder what people will turn to next. Can we wait to see Extreme Makeover High School Senior Edition? Newsweek magazine came up with the brilliant idea of ​​ranking high schools by the number of Advanced Placement (AP) tests taken per student, stating in the publication: It is one of the best measures available for comparing a wide range of student preparation. students for higher studies. level work. Never mind that numerous studies have come to the opposite conclusion: while student performance on AP exams is strongly related to college performance, simply taking AP or other honors level courses in high school is not a valid indicator. the probability that students will perform well. in college. But ranking high schools just by the number of AP exams taken is a crude and highly misleading statistic. It is also harmful, an incentive for schools to offer AP courses regardless of the quality of the students or the teaching. Just like college rankings have done with universities, this is yet another attempt by the media to make the tail wag the dog. The repositioning of higher education in the public mind as the ultimate goal of the status earned by the association is not simply watched by the press, but is actively promoted by it. More and more non-scientific rating systems are being published and represented as valid means of judging success and failure. Like sellers of snake oil to higher education, many in the media have knowingly engaged in sensationalism at the expense of our children. Pseudoscientific snap-ranks and flashy stories are the substitutes for well-reasoned, well-researched writing. Many in the media have abrogated their responsibility to bring clarity to this process. Fear, anxiety, myth, secrecy, false accuracy, exaggeration, and educational irrationality characterize the admissions landscape, notes Lloyd Thacker in College Unranked. The way the media is shaping our perspective on this critical life transition is simply wrong and misinformed, and very few voices have emerged to slow down this runaway train. Students and their parents will continue to game the system because, according to the opinion they receive from the media, that is the only option they think they have. Thacker concludes: Administration of student needs has been abandoned. 9

10National Percentage of Applications for Four-Year Colleges by Selectivity3 Selectivity National Percentage of Applications No. of Applications Accepted Less than 50% of Applicants 25.3% 1.078 million 51-70% of Applicants Accepted 31.0% 1.319 million 71 -85% of applications accepted 33.9% 1.446 million More than 85 percent of applicants accepted 9.8% .417 million National percentage of first-year students enrolled in four-year universities Selectivity National percentage of students Number of institutions Less than 50 percent of applicants accepted 13% 195 51-70 percent of applicants accepted 29% 358 71-85% of applications accepted 42% 556 More than 85 percent of applications accepted 17% 293 Chapter 2: Are the best minds of our generation are being destroyed by madness?4 What is happening here? I have more students than ever suffering from anxiety, depression, anorexia, and panic attacks, particularly among the highest achieving students. A student once told me that she loved to read, but with five AP courses, sports practices, SAT prep, and community service, she had little time to do it. An article by James Fallows in the Atlantic Monthly quoted a student as saying: Very few students get enough sleep. They exercise too much or not enough. We don't go for moderation, you can't because the hype is too high. Are we harming our nations' best and brightest youth, perhaps permanently and unnecessarily? The common thread among these struggling students at my school, and I suspect at many high schools across the country, is the obsessive desire to gain admission to the most elite colleges. Denise Clark Pope has rightly pointed out that for students, future success is more important than present happiness. These students, our future leaders and thinkers in America, are not happy or healthy. And things are only getting worse. Psychologist David 3 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System, US Department of Education, 2002 4 White, Scott Journal of College Admissions, Winter 2002; NACAC 10

11Elkind agrees. The truth is, he says, gifted children are less well off today than they were a couple of decades ago. What drives these students is the perceived need to do whatever it takes to get into a good or great college. Students and parents walk into my office wanting to know what secret will make the difference between acceptance and denial. If it's a game, they want to know the rules. Bruce Poch, dean of admissions at Pomona College, says things have gotten worse and more game-like, though the strategic focus seems particularly acute in upper-middle-class families and schools. Students perceive that there is a flowchart; an instruction sheet on what to do and everything will be fine. It's hard to let them know, usually in some roundabout way, that it's more a function of who they are, rather than what they do, that matters most in this process. By the time they meet with their counselor, usually at the end of their junior year, most of what matters in college admissions has already happened. Colleges want students who have demonstrated a deep, long-term interest and true talent in extracurricular activities. Spending next summer on an Indian reservation won't do that for you. They want students who have excelled academically throughout high school. Those few B's and, God forbid, C's do matter. The sad truth is that the best thing most students can do is not make mistakes. They take that extra time and get impressive grades in their senior year, but their application file will be read and graded before those grades arrive. It certainly is great if a student can write an impressive essay. When I asked a University of Chicago admissions counselor to read an essay by a student he was applying to (and later admitted to) at Harvard, he said it was helpful. A strong case can be made that things like the personal essay and interview are in place largely to give students the illusion that they have some control in the process. The way I emphasized the importance of the trial during recruitment was downright disingenuous, notes Rachel Toor at Admissions Confidential. By the time they heard me speak, there was little they could do to bolster their candidacies; and really, the only part of the process they had full control over was their rehearsals. So I made them think that it was something important for them to work on, if only to help them feel like they weren't helpless. Surely, the students are acting like they feel they have no control. Much of the behavior that I observe in students is quite similar to that described by Martin Seligman in his book Helplessness: On Depression, Development, and Death. He describes studies he and others have done to determine whether perceived lack of control results in hopelessness and helplessness. The type of behavior I am seeing in my best students leads me to believe that the term learned helplessness coined by Seligman accurately describes the harrowing experience students and, in many cases, parents are going through. It seems like a judgment not only of his son, a father comments, but of his upbringing and all his hopes. The admission process Why did this happen? Who is responsible for this? What impact will it have on the future well-being of these students? eleven

12There has certainly been a dramatic change in the past 25 years in the perception of college admissions in our society. Where there were one or two books on college admissions procedures, there are now entire sections of bookstores on the process. You would rarely see articles in major publications about the college admissions process; they now appear regularly on the front page of the New York Times and the Wall Street Journal. Clearly, there has been a societal drive in this direction for a number of years and it has clearly taken on a life of its own. However, much of what is fueling this frenzy is the lack of consistency in the college admissions process. Few universities accurately and effectively communicate how they select their students and, more importantly, why they have the policies and procedures in place. Universities don't want rules, says independent counsel Tedd Kelly, except those that protect elite institutions and work to keep them that way by keeping control away from students and families. Most universities have grading systems for applicants, but few make them public. Perhaps this is due to the fear that there is an even greater perception that there is a game to beat. But it's just as likely that they're not proud of what these rating systems might show. For one, the system is inherently unfair and not student-centered. I am continually frustrated by the vague and misleading statistics that universities report, says Bridget McHugh, a counselor at Fairfield High School in Connecticut, as if it were a mystery to them which students might get in. There is a lot of talk about the university. admissions offices working to find the best match between each student and each college and university. To be fair, this is largely true. I believe that the brightest and most talented students end up at the most selective colleges and that most students go to colleges where they are appropriately challenged. It's no secret, however, that the bottom line as to whether a student is admitted or rejected has as much to do with institutional priorities (the college shopping list) as it does with the academic strengths of admitted students. Information about the average SAT (and ACT) subject and reasoning test scores and the class rank of admitted and enrolled students is given to us and often we believe that it has some meaning, that is, that approximately the half of the students who are admitted pass and about half fail. below that number (median figures would actually show this, but are rarely provided). However, we know that there are a significant number of students who skew these statistics. Most highly selective colleges give preference to students who are recruited athletes, underrepresented minority students (usually African-American and Hispanic), and legacy students whose parents went to college. Michelle Hernandez in A is for Admissions notes that at Dartmouth, 17 percent of the freshman class is made up of recruited athletes and 12 percent are underrepresented minority students and, at Yale, legacies make up 15 percent of the student body. At most selective colleges, according to Hernandez, only 60 percent of the space in the freshman class is left for students without an admissions hook. Some colleges treat students whose parents went to graduate school as legacies. Others give preference to students whose grandparents or siblings attended the institution. Most universities seek to enroll the children of their professors. Almost all universities are looking for famous students or children of famous people. A very selective university went so far as to use the term no-12

13special interest applicant in their admissions literature. Another has a large number of Deans admits; who are potential applicants recommended by the development office for having a connection to a potential or actual donor. The truth is that these special cases are not mere exceptions, but can represent close to half of the enrolled students. It is also true that there is a benefit to having these students on campus. Having a diverse student body enriches the campus experience. Indeed, one only has to look at the selectivity of Boston Colleges after the Doug Fluties Hail Mary pass or the admissions statistics of Georgetowns after the Patrick Ewing era to see the connection between athletics and an institution's prestige. In addition, taking steps to keep alumni and donors happy contributes to the financial health of an institution, allowing it to keep costs down for students, offer better financial aid, improve facilities, and hire the best faculty. It is equally true that many students who are in these groups have standardized test scores and class ranks that are well below the average of other accepted students. Universities need to provide accurate statistical analyzes of admitted and enrolled students who are not part of what they designate as special cases. What is best for students? One of the thorniest problems in college admissions is that there is no clear congruence between what is best for students and what is most desirable in terms of college admissions. There has to be some shared responsibility here between parents and students who obsessively do what they perceive to be necessary to gain admission to the most selective colleges, as well as admissions professionals who give in to this by raising the bar higher and higher. Take the example of the rigor of a student's senior year schedule. I was admitted (25 years ago) to every college I applied to, three of which are generally considered among the most selective, with a schedule consisting of AP Physics, AP Calculus BC, English and History electives and no language foreign. If a student comes to me suggesting a schedule like this, I inform her that she will probably be out of the race for the most selective colleges. So the students are driving themselves on the ground to stay in the race. I'll take a chance here, but I think it's not healthy for students to take AP courses in five or six subjects in their senior year. One thing has become clear, Poch notes, at many universities there is growing concern about students with significant problems spilling out in all sorts of destructive ways, from alcohol and drug-related problems to eating disorders and clinical depression. I don't know how much of this is the result of crushing pressure and painfully high expectations. A common question I hear from parents and students in highly selective college admissions submissions is Should my child take more difficult courses and get Bs or get As on a weaker schedule? The answer is almost universally the same: to get admitted here, you must get A's on the hardest schedule. According to Caitlin Flanagan in her article Confessions of a Prep School Counselor, college admissions books explain that if kids want to have any chance at a top college, they must follow the most rigorous curriculum available to them. Flanagan argues that it is true that students 13

14You should take the toughest courses in preparation for applying to elite institutions, but: It's also true that such a curriculum is going to crush a lot of kids. A regimen of brutal academic hazing may be appropriate in some disciplines for medical or doctoral students. Candidates, but not appropriate for 15-year-olds. There is also a conflict between what parents want (full students) and the goal of college admissions decision makers: full admissions classes. What many good parents want for our children is that they be emotionally healthy, have a variety of interests and friends, and be happy. Sure, we'd like our kids to be really good at something, especially when we're talking to other parents at cocktail parties, but this isn't our top priority. In the world of admissions, it is truly valued that students have a talent and interest that really stands out. Some maxims in college admissions: we want whole classes, not whole students, and the students who are admitted here are not only talented, but distinguished. Both, I believe, are true at the most selective colleges. Fred Hargadon, Princeton's dean of admissions, recently noted that many Princeton students exhibited an unusual degree of excellence even in more than one area. The bar was raised for all students that day. Author and former Duke University admissions official Rachel Toor also acknowledges that many students who apply to college excel in multiple areas—the hard part is that there are so many applicants, and they all look so much alike. Anne Roiphe, a reporter for the New York Observer, has similarly commented on the uniformity of many college applicants: the children are too young to be distinguished. As early as 1981, David Elkind criticizes the tendency to overwhelm children with responsibilities in his book The Hurried Child, Growing Up Too Fast, Too Soon. He wrote: Rushing children into adulthood violates the sanctity of life by prioritizing one period over another. But if we really value human life, well we value each period equally and give each stage of life what is appropriate for that stage. University admissions personnel must recognize, consider, and act upon the incredible degree of control they have over young people from nations seeking university admission. A large number of students will do whatever they think will help them achieve that goal. If big biceps were suddenly perceived as the main admission criteria, these students would spend all hours of the day doing push-ups. Few students act spontaneously and naturally. At an ever younger age, there is calculated behavior to win the college admissions game. This is not all bad. There's a perception that community service is necessary to get into college, which is why hospitals are packed with candy vendors and food banks are packed with volunteers looking to boost their résumés. But is that what community service is all about? Doesn't the goal for students to give of themselves throughout their lives lessen when done with such a self-conscious goal? And doesn't this minimize the impact of the service the students had previously selflessly done? Some modest suggestions Perhaps we have gone too far and cannot go back. We cannot erase the national obsession with college admissions. It is often impossible to recover the innocence of the past. However, there are 14

15things the college admissions community can do to ameliorate the negative effects of the process on our nation's youth. College lists, such as those published by US News and World Report, thrive due to a lack of clear alternatives for accurate and reliable information. Many colleges seek to be all things to all students and encourage as many students, even clearly unrealistic candidates, to apply. Finding that diamond in the rough is a laudable goal, but not at the expense of many students whose hopes are needlessly dashed. Universities are required to provide a breakdown of admitted and enrolled students based on the measures they use themselves. Statistics must be provided for the admission of students who do not fit into a special category such as legacy or athlete. There are some college policies that, if more widely enacted, would improve the lot of the nation's students. For students, early decision, instead of helping to improve the correspondence between students and universities, has become a way to alleviate suffering and anguish. Northwestern University makes only two decisions about early decision: accept or deny. The more common practice of deferring early decision applicants prevents students from realistically engaging in the task of applying to appropriate colleges. For the life of me, I can't see why admissions people don't just deny kids who don't make an early decision, notes counselor Dodge Johnson. He continues: No testicular strength, maybe. Hedge bets, avoid dealing with people who don't like the decision. But I have a really hard time convincing kids to let go of an impossible dream and focus on something more realistic. And frankly, I wish they would do what Syracuse does, with no waiting list. Sales and marketing techniques applied to universities have served primarily to standardize the way universities describe their own students, and universities increasingly describe the students they want rather than the ones they work best with. While I appreciate the goals of things like online applications and the Common Application, which reduce the difficulty of applying to college, I believe the University of Chicago's difficult and erudite application questions discourage unrealistic and inappropriate students from applying. . There must be some standards for the rigors of a senior program. Taking four courses in core subjects at the highest level of the school should be communicated as sufficient for admission and no additional weight should be given in the admissions process to increasing a schedule to 5 AP or IB courses. William Fitzsimmons offers this possible solution: Colleges can help themselves and their future students by stating (and showing) that they are not judged simply by the number of AP and other advanced credits accumulated at the end of the senior year. Students should be discouraged from taking too many standardized tests by providing alternative measures of aptitude as many universities have done (see fairtest.org for a list of universities that have alternative measures for judging applicants and that make testing optional ). 5 5 College Boards' decision to allow students to submit only scores of their choice to colleges (Score Select) for the graduating class of 2010 is a big step in the wrong direction. Go to www.scottwhitesworld.blogspot.com for a discussion on this. fifteen

sixteenThere also needs to be a dramatic change in the way wealthy parents raise their children. They should let kids be kids. Flanagan describes a kind of fetishistic sense of power from being able to associate his son with one of these elite schools. Parents, he continues, who had always been charming and appreciative, became irritable and demanding once he helped them choose a college. In his article, The Early Decision Racket, James Fallows, a national correspondent for the Atlantic Monthly, notes: The surprising thing is that getting through the admissions gate at a renowned university should have come to seem like the quintessential point of raising children by middle class. . It's hard to avoid the frenzy, particularly considering the media attention on the subject. Flanagan depicts what she calls admissions porn in the form of college how-to guides that add to the impression that kids are not just applying to college, but are in fact involved in a drama of near-life consequences. Or death. The adolescents described in such books have transferred the deepest and most elemental of adolescent emotions, romantic attraction, to the least romantic of activities, college selection. College counselors want the best for the individual student. Unfortunately, there is no quick fix for the intense anxiety students face in the college admissions process. Marc James of the Charles Wright Academy suggests a first step to solving the problem: My short answer, he says, is to be in favor of encouraging students and parents to do what is healthy and what is true to core values ​​and practices. individual inspirations. . Nancy Scarci of the Roosevelt School makes another sound recommendation: We need to educate families that no college is a panacea that will ensure fame, fortune, or happiness. Clearly, something must be done to lessen the highly competitive nature of college admissions, or at least let students and parents know that the college a student attends does not guarantee a happy or prosperous future. High schools need to stop measuring their success solely by the number of admissions to the most selective colleges. Parents need to stop living vicariously through their children by pushing them too soon and too hard to focus on the college process. College admissions officers, just as they expect of their applicants, must define and distinguish themselves and their admissions processes. And students need to look for colleges that are the best fit for them rather than just the most selective college to which they can gain admission. Chapter 3 Moving Forward Some tips for parents: 1) Be honest with your children about restrictions and needs. If there is so much money to go around, if there are geographic restrictions, if there is anything that might restrict college options, let your child and the counselor know. 2) Listen, listen and listen! Listen to what your children are saying. What is important to them? Don't tell your kids what you think until you've heard what they think.

173) Keep an open mind. Universities have changed dramatically since we went to school. Don't trust impressions based on old stereotypes. Realize that there are some great schools that you may never have heard of. 4) Move away from a pecking order mentality. The best college for your child may not be the most competitive to get into or the highest on any college list. 5) Sometime in the spring of the junior year, sit down with your child and make a schedule of when each part of the process will be done. Establish a college visit schedule, exam schedule, deadlines for completing essay drafts and final essays, when all applications are due, etc. Have your child recommend deadlines instead of imposing them. They will almost always make them more rigorous than you would. 6) Read your child's essay to see if it communicates who they are, how well they think, and how well they write. 7) Make sure your child has a college that is both a financial security school and an admissions security school. Some things parents shouldn't do: 1) Don't micromanage the process. Occasionally make sure your kids are on track to meet deadlines, but don't nag, nag, nag. If you are concerned that your child is off track, call your child's counselor and let them help you get your child moving. 2) Do not talk to other parents about where your child is applying. 3) Do not miss any deadline, especially with regard to financial aid. 4) Do not add your voice to your child's essay. Suggestions for content and style should not include rewriting what your child has written. 5) Don't get caught up in the college frenzy. Just because your child's peers get SAT prep and private counseling doesn't necessarily mean you get this too. 6) Don't try to create an 'image' for your child. Don't try to 'pack' your child. Don't try to do something special between your junior and senior year to try to make your child an attractive candidate for college. Universities want students to have deep and broad experiences. Encourage what your child wants to do and what he has a talent for. Don't try to create something that sounds good. The bottom line is that the goal of college admissions is to find a match between what the student needs and what the college offers. The Myths of College Admission Myth One: An Ivy League college will absolutely guarantee a rich, fulfilling, and successful life. Myth Two: If you can't make an Ivy, a "prestige college" is best, because the name on your diploma will determine if you do anything worthwhile in life. Myth Three: Eastern institutions are the best and most desirable. 17

18Myth Four: The great university offers a broader and richer undergraduate experience. Myth Five: A college you've heard of is better than one you've never heard of. Myth 6: What your friends say about college is a good indicator. Myth 7: The college catalog can help you decide if this is the college for you. Myth 8: You should make your college selection early in your senior year, before New Years if possible. Myth Nine: Your college should be bigger than your high school. Myth Ten: Going more than 200 miles away from home will cost more and may result in isolation. Myth 11: If you're in the top 10 percent of your class with SAT scores of 2000 or higher, you belong to an Ivy or prestigious university. Myth Twelve: Ivy League schools are looking for students who don't have excellent grades. Myth Thirteen: SAT scores are the most important thing; the good ones will get you in and the bad ones will keep you out. Myth Fourteen: A training course will improve your SAT scores. Myth Fifteen: A bad recommendation from a teacher or counselor will ruin your chances. Myth Sixteen: Your choice of major will decide your career path, so the quality of the department should govern your choice of university. Myth Seventeen: You need a high school diploma to get into college. Myth Eighteen: Going to a private high school will improve your chances of getting into a good college. Myth Nineteen: Millions of dollars in unused scholarships are wasted each year. Myth Twenty: It's hard to get into a good college. And some other myth with comment: Myth 21: Colleges look for well-rounded candidates (more on this later) As mentioned above, what colleges are really looking for are full classes. They expect all applicants to be relatively well-rounded, that is, to be involved in a variety of activities both inside and outside of school. What they want most is a student who is not only well-rounded but also has a particularly outstanding talent, whether it be in writing, athletics, the arts, or some more esoteric area like chess or horse breeding. Often unable to verify information 18

19in resumes, so they will look for talent that can be corroborated and verified. At more selective colleges, this may mean recognition at the state or national level. Myth Twenty Two: SAT or ACT scores are not the primary factor in admissions decisions to highly selective colleges. It's true that the SAT or ACT is rarely a determining factor among students whose scores are around the median of students previously accepted to that institution. A student who scores 1800 on the SATs, has an A average, and is class president is more likely to be admitted to a selective college than a student who scores 1900, has a B average, and is class president. does not have other qualities that favor admission. . But the further a student's scores fall from the median for that university, the more likely they are to affect a student's chances of admission. A student with a non-special case score below 1800 is unlikely to be admitted to a more selective college, and a student with a score of 2400 who applies to a less selective college will likely be forgiven for some C's. Myth twenty-three: Students may be packaged in such a way that poor grades and/or test scores will be subservient to more personal factors. In the final analysis, subjective criteria (counselor and teacher recommendation, essay, and sometimes interview) will be the determining factors in deciding among applicants in a pool of acceptable applicants. Each of these elements can be presented to put the student in the best possible light by highlighting each individual's strengths and accomplishments. But a student with low grades and/or an undemanding program will have a hard time gaining admission to a highly selective college, even with exceptional charisma, superior writing skills, or demonstrated leadership ability. Myth 24: If I work hard enough, I'll get admitted to a highly selective college. Admission to highly selective colleges is based on superior effort, achievement, and attitude. What the hard work will do is increase the chances that you will be admitted to a university commensurate with your ability and ensure your success there. In a study described in Beyond College for All (Rosenbaum, 2001), forty-four percent of high school seniors do less than three hours of homework per week; only 14 percent do more than 10 hours. More than half of the students who do more than 10 hours of homework a week will earn a four-year college degree; only 16 percent of those who do less than three hours of homework a week will earn a bachelor's degree. Of high school students planning to attend college, 52% of college students who finished high school with a C average or below did not earn college credit. Only 13% of students with grades of C or below earned an associate's degree. Myth Twenty-Five: Since my interview went well, I am almost assured of admission. Interviews are snapshots that provide insight into an hour of your life. Universities: a) are more likely to value objective criteria more; b) you do not want to disadvantage students who cannot be interviewed; and 19

20c) You may not have any reliable measure to grade an interview, especially an alumni interview. Many colleges look for perceived interest in students applying for jobs, and sometimes having an interview is one way to show this. But in the end, this is usually one of the last elements taken into account when evaluating candidates. Myth Twenty-Six: The college coach told me that the only reliable source of admissions information is the admissions office. It is advisable to be careful about information from any outside sources regarding admission (except this book of course). Myth Twenty Seven: Higher SATs or ACTs mean a person is smarter. The SAT and ACT measure the ability to perform tasks that require verbal and mathematical ability. They do not measure many other commonly accepted components of intelligence, from judgment to mechanical or special reasoning. They also do not measure other components necessary for academic success, such as motivation and creativity. They are a fairly valid and reliable measure of a person's ability to perform school-related tasks. They are not a particularly good measure of eventual college success or indeed success in life. Myth Twenty Eight: The cost of a university is a good or even the best indicator of the quality of an institution. Many of the best universities in the country are in the public sector. The University of California system has more Nobel Prize winners per student than any of its competitors. Teacher salaries are typically higher at public universities and, particularly because of their low cost and high quality, many of the nation's best students choose to attend public universities. Many Midwestern colleges are less expensive than colleges on the coasts due to lower costs, but they do not have lower educational quality. Myth 29: A smaller university will provide more personalized attention. While this is generally the case, it is not always the case. Don't make assumptions. Research each college individually. If personalized attention is a priority, find out about student-faculty ratios and different class sizes, particularly in introductory courses. Your child should talk to current students or recent graduates about non-quantifiable aspects of personal attention, such as student-faculty interaction outside of the classroom. Myth Thirty: The best vacation spots are the most desirable college locations. A common reason students change colleges is that they choose colleges without taking into account that the weather changes with the seasons. As obvious as it sounds, many don't believe that the colorful fall foliage and clear 70-degree weather they see on that visit to a rural Maine college will soon turn into a long, cold winter and muddy spring (or the same So New Orleans can get very hot and humid in late spring and early fall). twenty

21Myth 31: A woman is more likely to get a better education in traditionally male fields (such as engineering, physics, or economics) at a coeducational school. In a coeducational school, a woman is more likely to be overshadowed by the dominance of men in certain fields. Despite the strengths of many women's colleges in areas like English and fine arts, a woman is likely to find a more welcoming environment at a women's college if she chooses fields like economics or the natural sciences. A third of the students at Bryn Mawrs are science majors, for example; and Mount Holyoke was cited by the Undergraduate Research Council as having the largest and best-equipped chemistry building among four-year undergraduate institutions. The Womens College Coalition (womenscolleges.org) notes that studies show that women at all-female colleges: Participate more fully in and out of class. They are more successful in a career; that is, they tend to occupy higher positions, are happier, and earn more money. They make up more than 20% of women in Congress and 30% of a Business Week list of rising female stars in corporate America, but only make up 2% of all female college graduates. Have a higher percentage of specializations in economics, mathematics and life sciences today than men in coeducational universities. Have more opportunities to fill leadership positions and be able to observe women running in the highest positions (90% of the presidents and 55% of the faculty are women). They report higher satisfaction than their co-ed counterparts with their college experience on nearly every measure: academic, developmental, and personal. Continue to award doctorates in math, science, and engineering in disproportionately large numbers. They are three times more likely to earn a bachelor's degree in economics and one and a half times more likely to earn a bachelor's degree in life sciences, physical sciences, and mathematics than at a coeducational institution. Develop measurably higher levels of self-esteem than other successful women in coeducational institutions. After two years in coeducational institutions, women have been shown to have lower levels of self-esteem than when they entered university. Score higher on standardized achievement tests. They tend to choose traditionally male disciplines, such as the sciences, as their academic careers, in greater numbers. They are more likely to graduate. They tend to get more involved in philanthropic activities after college. Women's colleges, in a recent survey, make up: 40% of the top 10 dormitories in the country, including ranked #1. 21

2230% of the 10 most beautiful campuses. 15% of the top 20 universities with the best food. Myth thirty-two: Being a valedictorian or salutatorian will guarantee admission to the most selective university. There are 28,000 high schools in the United States, but fewer than 30,000 openings on the Barron Profiles of American Collegess list of the most selective colleges. Therefore, many students with higher credentials, even ranking first or second in their class, will not be admitted to the most selective universities. Myth thirty-three: The more selective the university, the better. The selectivity of a university is not necessarily related to the quality of the faculty. Hunter College in New York only requires a B average or 1350 on the SAT for admission, but it has some of the highest-quality and highest-paid faculty in the country. Furthermore, selectivity in many cases simply indicates popularity rather than quality. Many extremely selective institutions offer lower undergraduate education. The popularity of other universities may be associated with factors unrelated to education, such as athletic success. Finally, many measures of selectivity used by college rankings and college guides may be among the weakest measures of an institution's quality.6 High average SAT scores and a low acceptance rate often tell you that a college it puts more emphasis on the SATs, a relatively high level. poor measure of college success than factors such as creativity, motivation, intellect, writing skills, or other talents. These colleges often encourage weak applicants to apply so they may be denied, making the college appear more selective. None speak very highly of an institution. The best measures of quality are the dropout rate, the percentage of students graduating, the percentage of students pursuing graduate studies, graduate achievement, and resources devoted to college education. Myth thirty-four: If I haven't heard of it, it can't be good. University reputations can be based on what was true years ago. Dickinson, Muhlenberg, and Skidmore College were once not very selective regional schools. They are now highly selective universities, attracting students from all over the country and the world. 6 The National Survey of Student Engagement (http://www.indiana.edu/~nsse/) lists many other factors that measure value added. See Appendix XIII. 22

23The Ranking Game A particularly pernicious trend in college admissions is the sheer number of rankings, the most notorious being US News and World Reports. There is a belief that admission to the most prestigious university will be the ticket to future success. Most adults change jobs eight or more times in their lives, and many change careers two or three times. In most fields, a more prestigious university will have a positive impact on landing your first job, which on average lasts two years. And in professions that require an advanced degree, it is the graduate institution that will have the greatest impact on future employment. A recent article in the Washington Post provided some interesting statistics: Here are the alma maters of the CEOs of the top 10 Fortune 500 companies in 2001: Duke, Pittsburgh Kansas State, Wisconsin, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth , Cornell, Miami of Ohio, Institute of Chartered Accountants (Australia) and UC-Berkeley. The vast majority of US presidents did not attend the Ivies, and when I looked at the first five governors listed in the Almanac of American Politics, I found only one Yale graduate, one Dartmouth graduate, and one Stanford graduate. The rest earned degrees from these schools: Alabama, Kansas, Ouachita Baptist, Austin State, Villanova, Texas, Georgia, Berkeley, Idaho, Ferris State, Indiana, Hamilton, Kansas Wesleyan, Kentucky, LSU, Florida State, Trinity, Michigan State, Mississippi, southwestern state of Missouri, North Hennepin Community College (that wrestler you may have heard of) and a governor, Ruth Ann Minner of Delaware, who not only didn't go to college, but dropped out of high school and got her General education diploma. . Don't forget our great TV hosts, Tom Brokaw from South Dakota, Dan Rather from Sam Houston State and Peter Jennings, another high school dropout. And as a final test, ask the person in his office who has the power to fire him what college he attended. In my case, it's the State University of New York-Buffalo.7 Hewlett-Packard replaced Carly Fiorina with Mark Hurd, who graduated from Baylor University with a bachelor's degree in business administration ('79) on a tennis scholarship. Robert Iger, a graduate of the University of Ithaca ('73), who replaces Michael Eisner of Denison University ('64) in Granville, Ohio, will take over at Walt Disney in October. A study by executive search firm Spencer Stuart found that the percentage of CEOs of Fortune 500 companies who were educated at Ivy League schools dropped from 16% in 1998 to 11% in 2004. Even the Harvard MBA shows signs of erosion. Among CEOs of large companies who have MBAs, 28% earned their degrees from Harvard, according to the 1998 study. By 2004, it had dropped to 23%. A survey conducted by the Wharton School at the Ivy League University of Pennsylvania indicates that the trend goes back 25 years. In 1980, 14% of the CEOs of Fortune 100 companies received their undergraduate degrees from an Ivy League school. By 2001, 10% of CEOs received college degrees from one of eight Ivies: Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, University of Pennsylvania, and Yale. The percentage of CEOs with bachelor's degrees from public colleges and universities skyrocketed from 32% in 1980 to 48% in 2001.8 7 Washington Post, March 30, 2004 8 USA Today, April 2005 23

24The myth of selectivity What is the Ivy League? What do Ivy League universities have in common? It's an athletic conference, plain and simple. Rutgers University in New Jersey was an original member of the Ivy League, but withdrew because the level of athletic competition was not high enough. Does attending an Ivy League school guarantee success? Not according to Krueger and Dale's 1995 study ("Estimating the Payoff to Attending a More Selective College") that compared students who attended Ivy League colleges and those who were admitted who did not. Interestingly, the two groups were virtually identical in terms of every commonly accepted measure of success. Therefore, it was the quality of the students, not the education that mattered for the success of these students. What is the following list of: 1. (None) 2 West Point 3. Harvard 4. Southwest Texas State 5. Whittier College 6. University of Michigan 7. Naval Academy 8. Eureka College 9. Yale 10. Georgetown 11. Yale This is a list of colleges attended by the presidents Post World War II 1. Harry S Truman 2. Dwight D. Eisenhower 3. John F. Kennedy 4. Lyndon B. Johnson 5. Richard M. Nixon 6. Gerald R. Ford 7. Jimmy Carter 8. Ronald Reagan 9 George H. W. Bush 10. William J. Clinton 11 George W. Bush Or how about this Gary Ripple list: Depauw, Grinnell, Hope, Gustavus Adolphus, Union (KY), Manchester, Wooster and Gettysburg? All schools attended by Nobel Prize winners. Among the 100 richest Americans, of the 79 who did not inherit their wealth, more than 20 did not complete college (11 dropped out and 10 never went) and only 21 went to universities ranked in the top 20 by US News and World Report rankings. 24

25Do Ivy League universities provide the best education even if only a small minority of the richest or most successful CEOs attended these schools? By most accepted measures, the answer is no. The National Survey of Student Engagement asks students about the quality of their educational experience, from their interaction with teachers to the amount of reading and writing expected of them. Not a single Ivy League university is among the top 20 ranked universities (see Appendix XIII). Surely Ivy League students send a higher percentage of their students to get their PhD than other universities? Not even close. On the list of the best universities to send your students for their PhD, the only Ivies represented are Princeton once and Yale four times. Reed College is on the list 17 times, the University of Chicago nine times, and Swarthmore nine times (see Appendix I). universities, so they must be the best. Once again we have to look at the numbers. Which statistic correlates the highest with the highest rankings on the US News list of national universities? If you guessed the average SAT scores or the lowest percentage accepted, you'd be close because the list gives these entry measures high priority. No, the highest correlated figure is the year of foundation. Because? Because the highest item in the list calculation is the peer review, 25% of the total ranking. In interview after interview of those asked to give these evaluations, the presidents and deans stated that they knew little to nothing about the other colleges they were asked to rate, using reputation as the primary source for their ratings. And let's take a look at the other parts of the qualifications. Fifteen percent of the rating is based on selectivity, not the highest measure of quality. Selectivity is more often a function of popularity than anything else. Selectivity can also be affected by the quality of the graduate program or the research achievements of the faculty, two things that not only do not contribute to the quality of the undergraduate experience, but more often than not distract from it. The second highest statistic is the graduation rate, 20 percent. If you can't graduate a high percentage of students who are mostly valedictorians from your class who have earned near-perfect SAT scores, you're clearly doing something drastically wrong. Add to that the fact that you can generously fund every student in need of financial aid and a high graduation rate isn't all that impressive. The final parts of the rankings are simple measures of the university's wealth (alumni donations, faculty pay, financial resources), again heavily favoring the established and well-known. And an article in USA Today backed this up:9 A study by executive search firm Spencer Stuart found that the percentage of CEOs at Fortune 500 companies who were educated at Ivy League schools dropped from 16% in 1998 to 11 % in 2004. A survey conducted by the Wharton School at the Ivy League University of Pennsylvania indicates that the trend goes back 25 years. In 1980, 14% of the CEOs of Fortune 100 companies received their undergraduate degrees from an Ivy League school. In 2001, 10% of CEOs had university degrees from one of the eight Ivies. The percentage of CEOs with bachelor's degrees from public colleges and universities skyrocketed from 32% in 1980 to 48% in 2001. 9 Wanted: CEO, not required Ivy, Del Jones, USA TODAY, 4/6/2005 25

26Chapter 4: Options in Higher Education10 It is impossible to be familiar with every one of the thousands of colleges, universities, and technical schools in the United States and abroad. However, it is essential that you are aware of the various options available, the differences between them, and the advantages and disadvantages of each. Your job as a parent is not to make decisions for your child, but to help him decide for himself what is the best and most appropriate educational option and how best to achieve the goal of admission, payment, and successful completion of this option. Life in post-secondary institutions should be viewed as an experience in itself and as a tool for your child to develop the social, technical, and academic skills to be successful in a future career. You should consider your child's goals, strengths, and learning styles and the characteristics of post-secondary options that best fit these student characteristics. One way to do this is to become aware of the different categories of postsecondary education and become familiar with at least some of the institutions in each category. Among four-year colleges and universities, there are a number of criteria for classifying them: college/university; public/independent; national/regional; single/mixed sex; profit/non-profit, religious/sectarian; residential / non-residential etc. There are a number that are quite specialized in nature. These include technical colleges, historically black colleges, military academies, weekend or distance learning colleges, co-op colleges, etc. There are also a large number of two-year colleges and technical schools (which may offer certification in lieu of a degree). ). These differ depending on whether they are public or independent, residential or community, for-profit (owners) or non-profit, and specialized or general. Universities vs. Colleges Universities are generally larger than colleges and typically offer both undergraduate and graduate (master's and doctoral) degrees. Universities often use graduate assistants, students of that institution pursuing a master's or doctoral degree, to teach a number of undergraduate courses. There is also a greater focus in universities on faculty research. At one time, universities were generally distinguished by having separate colleges, each focusing on a different academic area (arts and sciences, engineering, nursing, education, fine arts and/or music, architecture, business, etc.). ) and often had different rules and requirements for admission. Although this is still true of most large universities, more and more institutions are renaming themselves as universities that do not have this structure. Universities are often smaller (5,000 or fewer students), offer no or very limited graduate education, and often only offer limited professional training. Most students do not pursue vocational training at the undergraduate level at most universities, instead opting for a liberal arts curriculum. Most students, in my experience, don't know the difference between following a liberal arts curriculum and a professional curriculum. Students generally take a core of liberal arts courses at most colleges and universities, but those seeking a professional program will take more courses that give them specific skills in the workplace and often give them the opportunity to earn a degree. license or certification in their respective fields. Most students pursuing a liberal arts degree receive this professional training in graduate school. 10 NACAC, Fundamentals of College Counseling, 2007. 26

27A university has some advantages over a college. Some academic fields, such as engineering, benefit from the more extensive physical facilities of a university. More obscure undergraduate majors, from forestry to industrial design, are frequently offered at the largest institutions. Some students may want to pursue a specific career field, such as culinary arts, engineering, or nursing, and still have the opportunity to interact with students from a wide variety of backgrounds and interests. Other students may want to have the aura offered by universities with major varsity athletic programs. For students who want the widest variety of college majors possible, the larger schools often offer this. Universities also have a number of advantages. Universities, in general, have fewer classes taught by graduate students or adjunct professors (who are not full-time employees) and have smaller classes, particularly at the introductory level. A higher percentage of college students earn graduate degrees. University professors are expected to do research and publish, but they are generally not expected to do so extensively as university professors. Many universities have more opportunities for student-faculty interaction and expect professors to place a greater emphasis on undergraduate teaching. In general, students with strong professional training at the undergraduate level start out with higher salaries at the beginning of their careers than those who enter the workforce after undergraduate schools without this training. But those students who earn advanced degrees and/or who have the greatest strengths in critical reading and writing, general and specific field knowledge, problem solving, public speaking, interpersonal skills, and leadership earn the highest salaries as they go. in their careers. 11 Public vs. Independent (Private) Expenses at independent, also known as private, universities are generally covered primarily by private sources, including tuition, donations, and interest on school endowments. Public universities generally have their expenses subsidized by tax revenue. For this reason, public institutions are generally less expensive than independent ones, and sometimes dramatically so. Because state governments generally subsidize them, many public universities charge higher tuition for out-of-state students. While some public universities are specialized to serve the needs of the local community, such as agriculture and/or technical universities, most offer a comprehensive curriculum. Independent universities, on the other hand, vary more widely in their focus, size, and mission. Interestingly, however, there is little difference in the aggregate diversity or economic background of students attending public and independent four-year universities.12 In addition, while published tuition may be higher at independent universities, most offer aid financing beyond that offered by the state government. The average debt of students graduating from state and independent four-year colleges and universities is similar. Nationwide, three quarters of students attend public universities. National vs. Regional This distinction gained particular prominence with the initial publication of the annual U.S. college rankings. World and News Reports that separate national universities from regional ones, defining the former as those in which the majority of students who attend come from outside the state or region of the University. 11 Higher Education Research Institute, Longitudinal Survey of University Students (94-98). 12 Source: US Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2002. 27

28Most public universities are, by their very nature, regional schools. Most have missions to provide education for the students of that region. Dick Molls' book The Public Ivies lists a number of public universities that attract such a strong contingent of out-of-state applicants that they have all the advantages of their independent counterparts. In general, national colleges and universities are more geographically diverse (although many regional schools may be more ethnically diverse) and are more selective in their admissions practices. Also, many regional universities have fewer student housing options, while most national universities guarantee housing at least for their first-year students. Some regional universities do not have housing available and provide education for commuting students. There may not be as intense a weekend life at more regional universities because of the opportunity for students to go home on weekends. There may also be regional standards that students attending regional universities in another part of the country may take a while to get used to. Students in the Northeast may not be used to dorm room events or weekend dress-up events common in schools in the South, for example. Specialty Options There are several schools that have options that restrict or limit their student population in some way. Single-sex schools are one of those criteria. Only a handful of men-only colleges remain, but great demand and opportunity for women-only colleges continues. Many women's colleges have an adjacent coeducational or men's-only college where the two colleges share resources, course offerings, and sometimes even administrations. These are often called coordinated campuses and can take the form of different colleges within the same university (Barnard and Columbia), different sections of the same college (Hobart/William Smith), or separate institutions that have a historical link (Bryn Mawr and Haverford). Of BUSINESS WEEK's list of 50 Women Rising Stars in Business America, 15, or 30%, received their bachelor's degree from a women's college. Since female college graduates make up less than 4% of college-educated women, they are overrepresented on this list by a factor of 6 to 1. One-third (33%) of female board members of Fortune 1000 companies from 1992 are women university graduates. Of the 4,012 highest-paid officers and directors of Fortune 1000 companies in 1990, 19, or less than half of 1%, were women. Of these women, 36% are female university graduates. Of 60 women members of Congress, 12, or 20%, attended women's colleges. One in seven cabinet members in state government attended a women's college. Graduates of women's colleges are more than twice as likely as graduates of coeducational colleges to receive doctoral degrees and to enter medical school and receive doctorates in natural sciences. 20% of the women identified by Black Enterprise Magazine as the 20 most powerful African-American women in corporate America graduated from women's colleges. Three of them came from Simmons College. 28

29Nearly three quarters of women college graduates are in the workforce. Nearly half of the graduates in the workforce hold traditionally male-dominated jobs at the top end of the pay scale, such as a lawyer, doctor or manager. Nearly half of the graduates earned advanced degrees, while 81% continued their education beyond college. 9 out of 10 female college alumnae have been involved in at least one civic or professional organization since college. More than three quarters of the former students surveyed are or have been married and half have children. 14% of Good Housekeeping's "100 Outstanding Women Graduates" list are women's college graduates. In a 2004 study on the difference in women's experience at co-educational women's-only colleges,13 the author found that both freshmen and senior women attending women's colleges reported higher levels of challenge. academic, scored higher in active and collaborative learning and student-teacher interaction and reported that their campus environment encouraged and supported diverse interactions and an understanding of diversity. They also reported greater gains in understanding themselves and others, general education, the ability to analyze quantitative problems, and a desire to contribute to the well-being of their community. Contrary to national findings showing that transfer students are generally less engaged overall, transfer students at women's colleges were just as engaged as those who started and were about to graduate from the same women's college. However, seniors at women's colleges reported a lower level of interpersonal support compared to their coeducational counterparts, while freshmen at women's colleges reported higher support for success. Historically Black Colleges are another option with a select student body. Although virtually all share the common connection that the majority of their students are African-American, there is great variety among them. They range from a couple hundred students to tens of thousands and from the city center to very rural areas. There are public and private universities, and historically black universities and the United Negro College Fund only endorse a percentage. Some have extremely selective admissions, while others have open admissions. At one university, Alcorn State, Russian immigrants make up more than 25 percent of its student body. There are many reasons students choose to attend a Historically Black College or University (HBCU). While only 18 percent of African-American students attend HBCU, more than a third of African-American college graduates come from HBCU. HBCUs offer more African-American role models among their faculty, seniors, and graduates. Some students claim that while overt racism has decreased on college campuses (in fact, most HBCUs were founded as the only colleges available to African-Americans at the time), a more subtle form of racism persists. For example, Rachel Toor, in her book Admissions Confidential, pointed out that at a well-known university, black fraternities had to have security at their parties when others didn't. 13 Paul D. Umbach, et al. al., Female students at co-educational and women's colleges: How do their experiences compare? National Survey of Student Engagement, 2004. 29

30Some students may also choose to attend religiously affiliated colleges due to a desire to share similar life experiences with others. As with HBCUs, these vary widely in size, scope, and focus. Some universities were originally founded by a religious denomination, but are completely independent; some retain that religious connection only in certain aspects of school life; in some religion permeates all aspects of school life and some, generally called seminaries, prepare students for a life in the clergy. There are several ways to determine which one applies to a given university. Is chapel attendance required or expected? Are students required to take religion courses? How frequent are other religions in the student body? Are there religious services or activities available for other faiths on campus? Read the school's mission statement (usually found on the website or at the beginning of the view book or catalog), look for religious icons or symbols on campus, and ask about student life policies, such as condom availability in the health center or dormitories, which may be affected by religious beliefs. Another important group of distinctive universities are those with a military focus. Although there are a small number of private military colleges (for example, The Citadel), most students who obtain a military education do so at a US Service Academy. Selection at these schools is extremely rigorous, and graduates they agree to spend a minimum of five years as a military officer after graduation. The purpose of attending one of the US military academies (the US Military Academy, also known as West Point, Air Force Academy, Merchant Marine Academy, and Coast Guard Academy) is to train to be a military officer. The Merchant Marine Academy is distinguished from others by the appointment of officers as ensigns in the US Naval Reserve (an eight-year commitment) with the requirement that they obtain military employment. There is no room or board cost at these schools and students receive an annual salary. All except the Coast Guard require a nomination by a US Senator or Representative in Congress. Students interested in these options should begin seeking nominations during their junior year. There may be distinctive physical requirements for admission to service academies. Most of those admitted to the Air Force Academy have perfect vision, for example. Students interested in military service after graduating from college may also consider participating in ROTC. An increasingly common option, particularly popular with adult learners, is the external degree or online university option. These colleges require little or no college campus attendance (in fact, some have no campus at all). While these options can be quite convenient, it's often more difficult to get a feel for the quality of education they offer. There are no campuses to visit or students present to talk. Perhaps the most important thing is to establish what are the certifications of your programs that are offered. There are two different types of certification: institutional and program. You must verify that the institution is certified by a state and/or regional accrediting agency. Each individual major in which a student may seek certification (nursing, accounting, etc.) typically has a certifying agency that accredits each college or university to train students for that career. Information about accreditation can be found from the Council for Higher Education Accreditation at http://www.chea.org/institutions/search.cfm. 30

31Two-Year Colleges While most four-year colleges prepare students to receive a bachelor's degree in arts or sciences, many students begin their graduate careers at a two-year college and pursue an associate of arts degree. or science. There are several different two-year options. Most areas of the country are served by publicly supported non-residential community colleges. In some areas of the country, there are many large privately supported residential and non-residential colleges. Several colleges have a two-year college option within the college. There are large geographic variations in the availability and use of these options. There are few residential community colleges in the Northeast. In the South and Midwest they are quite common. In California, most students who enter higher education do so first through a two-year university. There are several advantages to starting at a two-year university. In most communities there are low-cost community colleges nearby. This convenience and low cost makes college a feasible option for those with limited resources. Hours are often flexible so those who are employed can sign up full or part time. Most two-year colleges have open admissions, where any student who graduates from high school is admitted. Students who have some weaknesses on their high school transcript essentially get a second chance at a two-year college. Most four-year colleges that consider students completing an associate's degree do not require test scores or high school transcripts. In most states, the state university has articulation agreements with that state's community colleges, agreeing to admit any graduate who achieves a certain grade point average. Most four-year colleges accept full credit for an associate's degree. Students who transfer from one four-year college to another often lose credits in the process and need to spend more time in college. Athletes who wish to play at the NCAA Division I or II level in college must meet NCAA requirements. Those who do not meet those requirements can attend and play sports during a two-year college and not lose playing time upon transfer. Two-year colleges are more likely to offer remedial courses for students who need to build skills in college, including English as a Second Language programs for students with limited English proficiency. Students who do not feel psychologically prepared to live away from home may find commuting to a community college a good option. Although two-year colleges are often viewed primarily as options for students who are less academically prepared for college, their convenience and cost make them viable for many academically talented students. Some academic programs are stronger at certain two-year colleges. There are a number of two-year technical colleges that offer courses so that students can act as support for engineers, scientists, architects, etc. or offer training in agricultural sciences. Students graduating from these universities may also transfer to four-year technical programs. There are also a number of majors that are pretty strong at certain two-year colleges. In my state, New Jersey, students pursuing a degree in culinary arts, automotive technology, or scientific glassblowing can only find these programs at the state's two-year community colleges. Combined Degrees There are several different options for enrolling in programs that offer more than one degree. Students who want a major that could be offered only at specialized or large universities 31

32colleges (such as agriculture, forestry, or engineering) but want the advantages of a smaller, less specialized college, they may want to consider 3 or 2 programs. Under this option, the student typically spends three years at a liberal arts or smaller college and the next two years at a larger or more specialized school. The student frequently earns two degrees: a BA and a BS. Similarly, students who definitely want to pursue an advanced degree, such as an MBA, can enter a combined Bachelor's and Master's program. They generally work the same as the 3-2 programs; except that students often don't have to change institutions, they simply enter the master's program after three years of undergraduate study and earn a bachelor's and master's degree. Extremely talented students may also consider accelerated programs in Medicine (MD), Law (JD), or Pharmacy (PharmD). Students who are accepted into these programs are guaranteed admission to doctoral programs upon completing three years of undergraduate study, assuming they maintain good grades. There are also combined degree programs in which a student is admitted to undergraduate and doctoral programs outside of high school, but must still complete all four years of undergraduate school. Finding Information About Colleges and Universities There are several ways to become familiar with the variety of colleges and universities. Try to visit different types of colleges: big and small; urban, suburban and rural; public and private; liberal and comprehensive arts; conservative and liberal etc. You can also, if your child is interested, visit colleges and universities with a specific mission, including military academies, historically black colleges, community colleges, two-year and four-year technical colleges, junior colleges, sex colleges, or strong mission colleges. religious. There are two different types of college visits. Before the spring of your child's junior year, visits may be made simply to familiarize your child with the different types of college options. You do not need to schedule a tour or interview in advance and weekend visits are fine if that is most convenient. As the spring of her junior year approaches, it's time for your child to start looking for specific colleges she can attend. she wants to apply and arrange a visit. It is helpful to call ahead and schedule an interview or attend a group information session (interview details will follow later). Your child should take advantage of these visits to learn about individual institutions, as well as more general information about this type of school. Your child may want to ask the admissions staff member or tour guide: Describe what sets your school apart and what sets it apart from other similar schools. Who you most recently cross-applied with (have applications in common). What is most important to them when making admissions decisions, what process do they use to make decisions. How many students who enter as freshmen graduate in five years? How big are the introductory classes? 32

33What percentage of students are taught by tenured professors? What percentage of students are taught by part-time graduate assistants or adjuncts? What is the rate of serious crimes on campus: rapes, assaults, robberies, etc.? How do faculty salaries compare to peer institutions? What is the teacher turnover rate? What is the career distribution of students? What is the financial health of the institution (for example, by asking what recent cost-saving measures the school has taken) What are the health services available to students, What is the availability of services for students with learning disabilities (if applicable) ) How diverse the student body is. You may also want to ask about college graduates: how many went on to graduate school, how many of the job seekers found work in their field, etc. You may want to practice selective polling instead of looking up stock statistics. For example, instead of asking what percentage of students who applied were accepted into medical school, you might want to ask what percentage of students who initially sought to apply to medical school as freshmen ultimately attended medical school. medicine. Next, you and your child take a tour of the campus with a student tour guide. Your child should try to become familiar with the school. He might think if she would feel more comfortable there. Your child should observe students in the student union or lunchroom. Are there any defining characteristics of the students you see? How many of the men are wearing backwards baseball caps? Do students appear status conscious in the way they dress or behave? Do the students seem creative, conventional? Your child should take notes on her observations. Remember that the admissions office pays your tour guide to give you a good impression of the school. You or your child may want to stop and ask students random questions about school: What is academic and social life like? What are the best and worst parts of school?; Would they go there again if they had to do it all over again? How is the weekend life (if the school is residential)? If you take a tour of the dorms, look at what the students put on their doors. This is a fascinating window into the type of student who attends college! You may even want to read the graffiti in the student bathrooms. What quickly becomes apparent on these tours is that your child will be quick to judge if this is a college she would like to attend. I often hear from parents at times when the child gets out of the car, spends no more than a few moments looking around, gets back in the car and wants to drive away. Parents soon begin to respect the 33

34wisdom of this decision and not insist on the subject. It may seem like a waste of time to spend hours driving to a campus only to have the tour end after five or ten minutes, but knowing that your child is not interested in a particular college is invaluable information. There are numerous sources of information, both electronic and print, that can help you and your child learn more. Perhaps the most useful is the university newspaper. It will give a solid sense of the tenor of the campus and often shed light on some of the political issues on campus. Your child should ask if it is available and read it. Many colleges have their rated professors on a website: ratemyprofessor.com. It is helpful to review the qualifications of teachers in possible careers. Almost every post-secondary institution has a website. Most have the list and description of the courses and careers offered and all the extracurricular and sports activities. Most also have colleges' complete course catalogs online, information on incoming students as well as graduates, and any special programs offered. You can usually use standard Internet search engines to get information about particular careers or programs. For professional programs (nursing, education, auto repair, accounting, etc.) it is helpful to look up the certification credentials of the colleges that offer that program. There are a number of Internet sites (such as collegeboard.com or princetonreview.com) that allow you to sort and select colleges based on a variety of criteria. There is a large and growing source of printed materials with information about colleges. College guides, which provide facts and information about colleges, fall into two main categories: factual and subjective. The factual guides are useful for information, but they do not give much insight into the schools described. The more subjective guides give much more personal and qualitative judgments, but may include inaccurate or incorrect information. There are a large number of publications, both in magazine and book format, that claim to rate universities. While these lists are somewhat useful, as your child becomes more familiar with what to look for, she will learn to trust her judgment and experience more than measures like these. There are also written materials and online information that list and describe just about any subset of post-secondary options you can think of, including those describing Catholic colleges, Jewish campus life, historically black colleges, trade and technical schools, programs for students with learning disabilities or colleges that claim to have some special quality (for example, Lauren Pope's Colleges that Change Lives or Miriam Weinstein's Colleges that Make a Difference). Building a College List Choosing a college is a reverse pyramid: Your child starts with a large number of potential colleges and then narrows down the list. To start the process, it is necessary to familiarize yourself with the wide variety of options in higher education. The next chapter describes many of them. It is important to realize that what is vital to one student may be irrelevant to another. A student may only be looking at schools that have architecture or chemical engineering, and that can severely limit the possible options. But most students who enter college do so with an undecided major, and most students who have a chosen major change it by the time they graduate. It is also important that students are as well informed of colleges that they may not initially be considering as the ones they are considering. Students who think they are only interested in small schools, for example, should make sure to visit some larger schools. 3. 4

35Students must also be flexible with their criteria. Many kids who see me about college want the baby bear's list of colleges: not too big (>8000) and too small (

36monumental importance and will affect the rest of their lives. Actually, there are important questions, which major to study, which universities to study, etc., but not vital ones. The college years help define who they are and what they want to do in the future, but they're probably no more or less vital than the four years of high school or the first four years after college. But this almost mystical nature of the college search can lead to a degree of paralysis and conflict. Kids procrastinate and parents hire independent counselors to keep their kids going. Parents, particularly those sending their first child to college, need to be the ones to keep the process in perspective. Your son has never gone through this process before, you have. You know that the decisions that are made during this process are almost always reversible and change frequently. Most students who enter college do so with an undecided major, and most who enter college with a major change their major during college. Most adults are not working in a career for which they trained in college. Most people change jobs five or more times and also change careers. However, there has to be somewhere to start. Students need to access their values, interests, and abilities and make tentative decisions based on their conclusions. Values ​​Assessment14 Students: Read the following items and rate how important they are to you: ____Altruism: Your satisfaction with life comes not from what you do for yourself but from helping others ____Creativity: You would like to have a career in that you can use your imagination and be inventive ____Earnings: in your life, money may take precedence over other considerations such as job satisfaction and personal interests ____Financial Security: you are not an adventurous person and prefer a career that offers stable income with little risk ____Independence: He is an entrepreneur and likes to be in control of his daily activities. ____Interaction: You have a friendly, outgoing personality and enjoy working with others rather than alone. ____Power: You like to have a direct impact on the lives and actions of other people. ____Recognition: You would enjoy being famous and respected for what you do. ____Variety: You don't like to do the same thing all the time At the beginning of the process it is not necessary to look at specific careers or careers but more global characteristics: Do you prefer to do things with other people or are you happier when you are doing things alone? Do you like to make decisions for yourself or do you prefer others to make decisions for you? Are you more comfortable thinking about abstract ideas and concepts, or are you more interested in practical solutions? Can you stick with a project for hours? 14 From The ABCs of College Planning, NJACAC, 2007 36

37at the same time or do you get bored easily? Use the inventory below to see which careers might match your particular style and personality. Interest/Ability Inventory15 Please check each category that best describes your interests and abilities. This will help guide you in selecting careers in which you have a high potential for success: ____Artistic: Do you like music, art, or literature? Is self-expression important to you? Would you describe yourself as independent, original, unconventional? Artistic careers may include acting in theater, dance, or music; use hands to create or decorate; work in writing, advertising, media, communications or infographics. ____Conventional: Are you precise and organized? Do you prefer structured environments? Would you describe yourself as reliable, stable, well controlled, and responsible? Careers that match your profile include working in banks, libraries, insurance agencies, or business careers such as computer operations, record keeping, financial analysis, statistics, or accounting ____Entrepreneur: Would you describe yourself as energetic, enthusiastic, adventurous, and confident? of himself? Are you good at persuading people and prefer social tasks where you can take the lead? Careers in this field may include business executive, buyer, hotel manager, real estate agent, sports promoter, political consultant, or working in any type of sales. ____Environmental: Do you enjoy working outdoors? Do you like caring for animals or doing physical work? Careers in this field include game warden, veterinarian, agricultural researcher, landscaper, or working in fishing, agriculture, or ranching. ____Researcher: Do you enjoy your science and math courses at school? Would you describe yourself as task oriented? Would you like a career that involves research and discovery? Do you enjoy solving abstract problems and have a need to understand the physical world? Career options include computer systems engineer, biologist, social scientist, research laboratory worker, physicist, technical writer, or meteorologist. ____Social: Do you get satisfaction from helping others? Would you describe yourself as responsible, humanist and concerned about the welfare of society? Careers that fit this profile include teaching, therapy (vocational, physical, psychological), health care, human welfare (social worker, probation officer, police officer, firefighter), legal services, clergy, or public service. to the client. ____Technical: Do you like to apply technical principles to solve practical problems? Do you like to play with machines, tools or vehicles? Do you enjoy creating things with your hands or do you find that you are good at fixing things that are broken? Careers in this field include certain types of engineering (civil, electrical, industrial), vehicle operation and repair, equipment repair, architectural design, and web design. Choosing a Major: This is a useful exercise for students to search through books or websites that list all available college majors and highlight all those that may be of interest to them. Some sources include the College Board Index of Majors and college guides such as Barrons Profile of American Colleges that 15 From The ABCs of College Planning, NJACAC, 2007 37

38They have included the main indices. This data is also publicly available on the Department of Education website and is part of a large educational data source called IPEDS. It's also helpful to see which college programs are certified by the approving agency. With the Internet, this information is usually quite easy to find. Using a standard search engine like Google, you can search for the certifying agency for a particular major and search the website for colleges that have received a particular certification. In some majors, from marine biology to chemical engineering, it is often better to attend colleges with a sizeable number of students in that major due to the demands on staff and facilities. Universities often state in publications that they offer a major but do not have students graduating with that major or staff dedicated to teaching in that discipline. When I worked in college admissions, I learned that many entry-level staff are tasked with preparing information for college guides, leading to many inaccuracies. Take a look at the creative writing in various college guides, for example, and you'll see some lists without any overlap. Many colleges use something called the Common Data Set to submit information to college guides to improve consistency, but not necessarily accuracy. If you have a very specific major in mind, it's often important that you have other students at the college you attend with similar interests and values. It is also important that you consider whether you want professional training at the undergraduate level, at the graduate level, or once you enter a career. For students who plan to attend postgraduate training or who are prepared to work in a career such as learning-on-the-job publishing, many choose liberal arts majors. For students who have a very specific major in mind, it can be difficult to find it at a small university. One irony is that students may be better served at universities where they are not the typical student. A student may notice that a large number of students from a university known for pre-med end up going to medical school and that a large percentage of those who apply are admitted. But this student cannot delve into statistics. There are an equally large number of students at the university who entered as prospective pre-medical students who ended up not applying to medical school. For many extremely selective colleges like this one to have high medical school admission rates, it is necessary to select the student pool early on, usually during the two years of inorganic and organic chemistry. When I read a brochure produced by students at this university about the teachers at the school, most science classes seemed to be some kind of intellectual boot camp, not something you enjoyed but survived. When I worked in admissions at Bard College (in the early 1980s), we rarely had students interested in going to medical school. I would be pretty sure that a student interested in going to medical school who has a strong aptitude in math and science would find an easier path and more support at Bard than universities with much larger numbers of students applying to the medicine School. The science teachers at Bard would make sure that if they only had one applicant to med school every other year (that's not true there anymore), they would do whatever they could to make sure the student succeeded. Some Tips on a Safety School This is perhaps the area, matched only by college essay writing, that causes the most angst for students and parents. Suddenly, most of the students who come to me can list their dream schools. When I meet with many parents and students to go over the final list of colleges, they often feel like they have their list done, except for finding a safe school, as if they are describing the preparations for a trip and having done everything but 38

39check tire pressure. It would be much more like checking to see if there was gas in the tank. Finding a safety school (sometimes euphemistically called a basic school) is a relatively simple process, although not always easy. I am hesitant to use the term finding a safe school, as the safety school selection process should not be separated from the rest of the college selection process. It must be a university that the student would be happy to attend if admitted. One of the saddest parts of my job is having a student tell me that he doesn't want to attend the only college he was admitted to. Sometimes, to ensure that a student has a college on her list where admission is assured, the student must compromise on the criteria she is using to select a college. Could they be happy at a university of a slightly different size or location than their original selection criteria? Perhaps they would consider a slightly more rural school or one that is a little less family-friendly. This is not the place for magical thinking. It comes in many forms. If I apply to 10, 15, or even 20 colleges, I'm sure I'll get into at least one. Although most of the students who were admitted had stronger credentials than me, Eric got in and he's not as strong as me, so it must be a safety school for me (never mind that Eric can throw a football at through a moving tire 50 yards away). I'll take a year off if I don't get into a university that's right for me. I will be the exception! Applying to a security school should be viewed with the same degree of reality testing as choosing insurance. The permanent maxim is to hope for the best but plan for the worst. Surely you wouldn't drive or own a car without enough insurance to cover an unexpected collision or storm. The wise student is one who uses this same degree of caution when creating a college list. There are three things that one should consider when choosing a security school. One, as mentioned above, should be a college the student would be happy to attend if it were the only college the student was admitted to. Two, the student must have a higher class rank and GPA and higher standardized test scores than most other students who were previously admitted to this university from their high school. Three, college must be affordable if the college does not offer any financial aid. Students who have financial need may want to have two security schools: one where the student is clearly eligible but possibly not affordable, and another that is both an admissions and financial security school. The criteria one chooses to decide if a university is a security school are very similar to the criteria one might use to choose which level of insurance is best. Much of the decision depends on the level of security desired by the student and parent. There are several ways to determine if a university is statistically a safety school. A student should be aware of a number of things: what their grade point average and class rank are, what their SAT reasoning test (and subject tests, if applicable) and/or ACT scores are, and what are the academic credentials of those who were previously admitted to the colleges being considered. There are several ways to find information about the latter. Many high schools now use college database programs such as Naviance or Connect that make historical high school information available to students. This is the most reliable and accurate information. Look at a scatterplot or a database and see the credentials of typical admitted students. Statistically, this is the median or middle student in the range. Average scores (also known as means) can be misleading for one or two outliers that can skew the results one way or another. The student should not 39

40being matched against the student with the lowest admitted credentials for that student is often a special case, such as a legacy, recruited athlete, or from an underrepresented minority group In the absence of specific data from high school, individual colleges, and many other sources of evidence Information such as computer search programs (collegeboard.com, princetonreview.com, etc.) and college guides and other publications provide data on accepted students. These data generally take two forms, either means or ranges. Ranks are often in the form of the middle 50 percent of the class. This means that they are giving the averages of students accepted at the 25th percentile and 75th percentile of the admitted class. Most universities and others agree to use the same information provided by the university in the same form, called a Common Data Set.16 This is generally the same information provided to the federal government and available from the US Department of Education. IPEDS data). Once this information is obtained, there are several techniques that can be used to determine if a university is safe. In each, there is one assumption that must be consistent: that the university uses nothing more than statistical information to choose students. A student may be on the coaching short list or the parent may be an active alumni, but you cannot control how a university uses this information. If high school data is available, the typical admitted student must score at least 100 points higher on the SAT reasoning test and total subject tests (if necessary) or 2 points on the ACT composite score. In addition, the student must be at least 5 percentage points higher in class rank than the average admitted student. If one only has rank information from one university, it is probably best to have statistics at or above students in the top 25% of admitted students. Narrow College List: So your child has 20 colleges and can't come up with a manageable number of colleges to apply to. There is a technique that seems to be useful: the matching game. Your child should compare each college on the list with another college on the list and ask himself which one he would go to if he were admitted to both. The winner of each pairing receives one point. In the end, each university should have a number. Now divide the list into three parts, Outreach, Realistic, and Safe Schools. From each list, you must choose the top two or three universities. If finances are a major issue, at least one of the safety schools should be affordable if only a minimal financial aid package is offered. The Admissions Process Early College Plans The growth of different types of early college admission plans is a continuing source of confusion for students and parents. There are new plans being developed every new admissions cycle and it is virtually impossible for families to keep up with the knowledge about them. Basically, there are two main types: binding ones, which means the student agrees to go to that university if admitted, and non-binding ones, which just give the student an early indication of admissions without a binding commitment. A relatively new variation of the binding plan is the Early Decision Round II, which remains binding but has a later deadline. Variations on non-binding plans include early action, single choice early action, early notice, and probable letter. I will describe below 16. There are many universities that admit that they do not include all students in their profiles, excluding students known as NIPS (not in student profile). Some colleges exclude ESL students, adult students, or other special admits. This practice can make data about high school students themselves more accurate 40

41each of these options and the disadvantages and advantages of each for both students and universities. Binding advance decision is pretty straightforward: A student chooses a college she most wants to attend and agrees to attend if she is admitted. There are quite a few advantages for universities to offer this plan. For one thing, one of the hardest parts of admissions involves guessing how many admitted students will actually attend (known as throughput). Guess too low and you'll have to start going extensively on your waiting list, a process that could last well into the summer. It could even result in vacant jobs in the fall, a loss of income that can cost any admissions director their job. Perhaps even worse is having too many accepting students and not being able to accommodate these students in dorms or classrooms. Early decision provides a much more reliable way to predict and control performance. The more students they admit in the early fall, the less uncertainty there will be in the spring. Early decision has other huge benefits for universities. One of the main ones is financial. Throughout the 1970s and early 1980s, college costs passed on to parents each year increased by less than the rate of inflation. In the mid-1980s, universities began trying to recoup these losses by raising costs well beyond the rate of inflation. However, in the last five to 10 years, cost increases have started to level off as more and more students have started to apply for financial aid. Financial aid budgets, essentially tuition reductions, began to take an increasing share relative to revenue. Universities basically operate like airlines, with consumers sometimes paying drastically different prices for the same service. An admissions director at a highly selective college told me how his president had told him that he had to cut his financial aid budget without any guidance on how to go about it. He had a number of things he could do to accomplish this: deny high-need students (need-aware admissions), hollow out students by offering only a percentage of the aid they might otherwise qualify for, recruit students international students, who are generally not offered financial aid, admitting students off the waiting list and not offering them financial aid or increasing the percentage of the class that enters through early decision. Why does early decision reduce a college's financial aid budget? Because most students who need substantial financial aid want the opportunity to compare financial aid offers, choose not to apply early. Is it my experience that college students are low ball in terms of financial aid who apply for an early decision since they have already committed to attend? No, but with the wide variation in how colleges calculate financial aid, the same student applying to two similarly cost colleges may receive vastly different aid offers. Therefore, early decision is a very effective tool that colleges use to attract and enroll wealthier students and reduce their financial aid expenses. Early decision is also an effective tool to satisfy different interest groups. If there are particular goals set by the university administration, Board of Trustees, or faculty, ED is an effective tool to make sure those goals are met. It is rarely possible for students and parents to be aware of these institutional priorities, as they are rarely made public, but made clear to the Director of Admissions. One university may be looking for more women in the sciences, another looking for students from other parts of the country, or another looking to strengthen an established identity. The University of Maryland-Baltimore County has had the best chess team in the country year after year. A chess Grandmaster may not have much appeal in many admissions offices, but he is gold for UMBC. 41

42There is also a large cabal of people who let admissions know that they want their fair share. The development office sends out its lists of children of potentially important donors, the alumni office wants the children of active alumni to be admitted, and professors of all stripes go to admissions with their prospects: scientists, artists, actors, and so on. Famous people obviously move to the top of the list too. Chelsea Clinton, Brook Shields, and George W. Bush probably did not need the same credentials as their peers to gain admission to Stanford, Princeton, and Yale. Some colleges are pretty clear that if they are going to give certain groups an advantage in the admissions process, they should apply for ED. The University of Pennsylvania, for example, states that the children of alumni must apply for ED in order for their legacy status to count. Nowhere is this more true than in athletics. College coaches can only go to admissions with so many prospects. If a coach only has a one in seven chance of landing a student applying for regular admission, the coach can only try so much for that student. Coaches at universities that have binding ED programs tell students in no uncertain terms that if they want to be admitted, they must apply for ED. Athletes have a huge advantage in the admissions process and having to go to the ED is the price many athletes have to pay to gain this advantage (more on this in the athletic recruiting section). Colleges also frequently use ED to appear more selective, and sometimes actually become more selective. A common measure of selectivity is achievement, the number of admitted students who enroll. Since ED students enroll at a rate of nearly 100%, each student admitted to ED increases the overall achievement rate for that college. Also, the more students admitted to ED, the fewer seats there were in the regular decision group. A small college in Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley has turned this into an art form. They admit more than 50% of their ED class. This has allowed them to greatly reduce their financial aid costs and increase their overall statistics (SAT average, class rank, performance, etc.) since they admit very few students by regular decision. There are also significant advantages for students in the ED process. A sophisticated analysis in The Early Admissions Game by Avery, Fairbanks, and Zeckhauser (Harvard Press, 2003) found that applying to Ed was worth 100 points on the SAT. Students who are borderline in terms of scores or SAT scores are often advised to apply for ED. Many times, when I have discussed a student with deans or admissions counselors, the response has been the same: if this student has any chance of admission, she would be in the ED pool. Reducing uncertainty is a powerful motivator for admissions deans. Also, colleges want students who really want to attend that school. College admission has many parallels to dating: They're more likely to look down to admit someone they know won't turn them down. Many universities see the ED as a way to improve the match between what the student wants and what the university has to offer. If ED is mutually advantageous for both students and universities, why is there so much criticism about it? Although one would like to think of ED simply as a way to ensure that students who are most interested in a university end up attending there, there are quite a few universities that don't use it this way. Many use it as a marketing tool to, so to speak, close the deal. Students are pressured to apply for ED before they are ready and before they have adequately considered their options. I can't count the number of students who walked into my office in the spring saying, I know I want to apply for ED, but I don't know where yet. Early decision is talked about at college admissions conferences as a marketing tool to nail down the class. Both students and universities are using it as a strategy, not a tool. 42

43ED is also a huge disadvantage for students who are not as sophisticated or wealthy. If colleges are using a large percentage of their ED slots, there is little room left for students who start the college process later or who want the opportunity to compare financial aid offers. Early Variations There are colleges that have more than one early decision date, usually called Round One (usually in November or December) and Round Two (usually in January or February). Often these are second-tier colleges that want to give students the opportunity to apply for EDs who have been denied or deferred from a more selective college. There are some universities that have rolling ED where as a student you can apply for ED anywhere, say between mid-November and mid-February. There are also colleges that allow students who applied for regular decision before the January 1 or January 15 deadline to switch that application to ED anytime up to, say, February 15. There are also a large number of varieties of non-binding early action plans, referred to as rolling admissions, early action, single option early action, early notification, priority deadline, and. The vast majority of the country's universities use rolling admissions. Beginning at a certain date, often shortly after the start of the senior year, they will accept student applications and inform them of the admissions decision four to six weeks after the application is complete. Literally thousands of colleges use rolling admissions, including universities as selective as the University of Michigan, Penn State, and the University of Wisconsin. Many students apply to a couple of rolling admissions colleges in the fall to ensure they get early acceptance with no obligation (all NACAC member colleges agree that, except in the case of early decision, students have until first of May to decide where to enroll). Cigus Vanni describes rolling admissions and how to distinguish them this way: Schools receive applications beginning in the fall and make acceptance decisions as materials are processed and read. Some colleges actually review application materials as they are received on a case-by-case basis. Other schools make admission decisions at the end of each month, reading those folders that have been turned in at that time. So, under a rolling admissions plan, it's certainly best to complete and submit the application as soon as possible. Your application will meet less competition the sooner it is received, and if you choose to accept the offer of admission right after it is submitted, you will be the first to access housing preferences and may receive a greater amount of financial aid. However, students are not required to accept an offer of admission in a hurry. Virtually all schools with a rolling admissions plan also sign up to the Common Response Date Agreement, so one can wait to see what other offers come in and wait until May 1 for a final decision. How to Compare Regular vs. Continuous Admissions: Let's use an analogy from track and field. Suppose you are a swim coach and have been asked to build a swim team from scratch. There are two ways to accomplish this: set a benchmark time that individual swimmers must meet to join the team, or assess each swimmer individually so they can bring out the best in the group. The first approach is rolling admissions, the baseline is established and any swimmer (applicant) who meets the criteria is made to the team (is accepted). the second is 43

44regular admission each swimmer (applicant) receives an individual time trial and those with the fastest times form the team (are accepted). Of course, in neither scenario would our coach (admissions director) have an unlimited number of spots available on the team (at the university). There will always be some very good swimmers (students) who may have met the time criteria but could not be offered a spot on the team (in college) due to space considerations. This is another reinforcement for a rolling admissions application (the sooner the better), as well as a reflection on how competitive the best swim teams (selective colleges) can be. Early Action (EA) is different from rolling admissions because, like early decision, there is a single deadline by which students must apply and a single notification date. However, like rolling admissions, the student has until May 1 to make a decision. There are two main reasons why universities choose EA over ED. Some colleges aren't popular enough to generate a large number of ED applications, but they don't mind students applying for EAs at their college as a safety measure, assuming a good percentage of those students are likely to attend. It is well documented that students are more likely to attend colleges they hear about before. Other universities choose EA because they have an objection to the advantage given to wealthy students in the ED process, but still want to give the most interested students an early indication of admissibility. Some of the more selective universities, including Harvard, Stanford, and Yale, do not allow students to apply anywhere else early (except rolling admissions) who apply there for EA. This option is called a Single Choice Early Action. These colleges use SCEA, because while they object to the elitism that can be attributed to ED, they feel they cannot act appropriately on the number of applications they would receive through EA without restrictions. Knowing that students are more likely to attend a college they learned about earlier, some colleges send Advance Notification letters to the students they most want to admit, even though the students did not apply through any advance plan. Others send probable letters, essentially acceptance letters sent with a wink. Why not just send an acceptance letter? Because several more selective colleges agree to have somewhat similar common response dates, usually around the last two weeks of March. Probable letters are a way to minimally stick to this common response window. Students generally receive three possible decisions for an early application: accept, defer to the regular class or a later date (such as ED Round II), or deny. Anyone who follows admissions knows that few students are denied EDs (except at Northwestern University, where all students who are not admitted are denied EDs). For years I couldn't understand this because so many students who were clearly inadmissible were being deferred rather than denied. It finally became clear to me when I spoke with the Dean of Admissions at an Ivy League university. She said they could easily deny more than half of the students who were not admitted to ED, and in fact did so for a short time. I told him that I thought this was better for students because it didn't cajole students who had no chance of final admission. She agreed, but said they simply couldn't handle the flood of people with connections that flooded the admissions office once the denial letters were mailed. Every person who knew a Board member, every faculty relative, and every child alumnus would have her defenders voicing outrage at her, no matter how unlikely admission might be. These same advocates seemed far less toxic when the student, in the regular cohort, was denied entry to this school but simultaneously gained admissions elsewhere. So who should apply ED? On the one hand, the athletes who are being recruited. Also, students who have researched colleges well and who, by early fall, have a preferred college out of the 44

45possible choices. This is especially true if the student is passable but a little low in the admissions pool (say a little under 50% in terms of GPA, rank, and test scores). Who should not apply the early decision? Students who have not adequately researched their college of interest AND possible alternatives, students who do not have a clear first choice, students who are inadmissible (below the 25th percentile in test scores or grades), or students who want the opportunity to compare financial aid offers. Parts of the Application: The Transcript There is a lot you will read or hear about the application process that should be treated with a degree of skepticism, but one piece of information is consistently presented and accurate: the transcript is the most important part of the application. application. Parents and students are sometimes under the illusion that other parts of the application, from a good interview or essay to unusual activities, will make up for weaknesses in the transcript. It is sometimes true that apparently good grades and courses are treated with skepticism by some universities. If only a small percentage of students at a particular high school go on to college, if the reader is unfamiliar with the school, and the school's profile does not give an adequate overview of the school's academic rigors or grades are not When compared to corresponding corroboration (such as recommendations, essays, or test scores), a university may not rate a transcript as highly. This is not true for most students applying to college. When I worked in college admissions, I was either familiar with most of the schools we get applications from or it was pretty clear from the school profile the nature of the student body the applicant was attending. There were things I always looked for in a transcript: Did the student take advantage of educational opportunities in high school? Did they take a full curriculum with advanced study in math, science, history, world languages, and English? If they expressed a strong interest in any academic area, did this reflect their academic record? Some tips on choosing courses: One should take as demanding a schedule as one can be successful. I define this as the ability to earn Bs or better. If a student feels that she cannot earn more than a C in an Honors or Advanced Placement course, then it is prudent to choose a lower level. Most desirable is a four by five schedule, with four years of study in each of the five major subjects. In an extremely demanding schedule, it is sometimes okay to take four majors. It is especially important to maintain both consecutive course study such as mathematics and a foreign language. In some courses, an easy teacher is hard to determine. But in areas where prior knowledge is necessary to proceed, it gives a better picture of student performance. Universities perceive high schools as a place to obtain a comprehensive general education and college as the place where further specialization should occur. Except when a student is pursuing a professional degree, such as art, theater, architecture, or engineering, universities expect the student to take a fairly standard curriculum. There are some red flags that students should avoid: 45

46-Take three years of a foreign language and then take a new freshman language in your senior year (or take two years each of different languages). University admissions staff know very well that the first two years of a language are the easiest. -Drop out mathematics or science in the last year. Students often think that since they are studying the humanities or social sciences, universities won't care if they haven't challenged themselves in math or science. Universities want to see that students can succeed in areas that they may not have a strong interest in, and that can be part of any university curriculum. -Take courses that are unfamiliar to college. Universities prefer courses that have a recognizable curriculum and name. Biology, Physics and Chemistry are preferable to Bioethics, Astronomy or Marine Biology, for two reasons. For one, there is a pretty standard curriculum in most chemistry or biology courses, whereas a marine biology high school can be anything from a weak survey course to an extremely rigorous course. Second, universities prefer students to take college courses in college. Even the most progressive universities are quite conservative about the type of curriculum they expect from their students. -Substitute a basic high school course for an apparently more rigorous course, similar to that of a university. Better to take Honors Modern European History or World History than AP Art History or take Honors Calculus for AP Statistics. For students seeking highly selective colleges, it is not harmful to take an art history of statistics course, as long as it is in addition to other rigorous courses, not instead of them. There is beginning to be a backlash in the Advanced Placement curriculum. Many high schools are removing or cutting AP courses from their curriculum, believing that too much content is being taught at the expense of deeper understanding. There is certainly some validity at this point in certain AP courses, but there is an advantage to AP courses for colleges that read transcripts: There is a very rigorous, standard curriculum culminating in a very demanding exam that requires the ability to absorb a Lots of information. , analyze novel problems using this information, and communicate this understanding effectively. Many students believe that since AP tests for senior courses are given after students are accepted to college, they can take AP courses that they know the easiest teachers have. Most high school profiles give a distribution of AP scores from previous graduating classes. Most college admissions staff can easily recognize that at a certain high school, AP World History is an intuitive course, while AP Modern European History might be the most demanding course in the school. Students seeking less selective colleges do not need as demanding a schedule as those seeking highly selective colleges. But all students seeking admission to four-year colleges are encouraged to take all five core subjects in the first two years of high school and at least four of the five core subjects in the final two years. There is also a wide variety of ways that different universities view transcripts. Some public universities do not weight courses, counting regular, honors, or AP courses in the same way. Others don't even look at the courses a student took, they just look at the students' GPA calculated by the high school, their own calculated GPA, or the students' class rank as the only measure of students' academic strength. Despite this, one should take a schedule that is viewed positively by any of the universities a student might apply to. Some examples of course schedules for seniors: 46

47For a student applying to the most competitive colleges (with average SAT scores over 2100 and a class rank in the top 5% of the class): AP BC Calculus AP Biology, Chemistry, or Physics AP English Literature or Language AP Modern European or World History AP Modern Language (6th or 7th year) a rigorous elective For a student applying to a highly selective university (with average SAT scores over 1900 and class rank in the range 15-20%): AP AB or Honors Calculus or AP Statistics AP Biology, Chemistry, Physics, or Environmental Science or AP Honors Physics English (Literature or Language) AP or AP Honors Full Year History Course or Languages Honors Foreigners (4th year or higher) Electives that match students' area of ​​interest For a student applying to a highly selective college (with average SAT scores over 1600 and class rank in the 35-50%) Honors Calculus or Pre-Calculus Full Year Honors Science Course or Honors Level Electives Full Year Honors Level English Course or Honors Electives Full Year Honors History or Social Studies Course or honors level electives. Honors Level World Language (Juniors or higher) *Students applying to these colleges may take four rigorous core courses instead of five) For a student applying to a selective college (colleges that accept students with SAT scores above 1200 and a class rank greater than 75 % ) One full year of college prep in English or electives One full year of college prep in science or electives 47

48College preparatory Algebra II or higher One full year of college preparatory social studies or electives At least a second year of world language if not already completed For a student applying for an AP More Selective Arts Program AP English Literature AP Modern European History AP World Language Art History Honors Senior Studio Art For a student applying for a more selective AP Engineering Program AP English Literature BC Calculus or AP College Mathematics Physics II AP World or Modern European History Honors or AP World Language High Honors Electronics digital The Application Filling out a college application is a fairly straightforward process, not unlike filling out a job application. Yet admissions officers are constantly surprised by the number of mistakes students make when filling out applications. Listed below are a few on NACAC's Service List for students using the Common Application, accepted by over 100 colleges: 1. Remind students that proofreading is not the same as spell checking. 2. Something that some students forget a lot is to SIGN AND DATE the last page of the application. 3. You'd be surprised how many students misspell their intended major: Psychology, Psychology, Psychology (just to name a few), and Business (to name another) are the biggest offenders. 48

494. I wonder about applications that are clearly written in the parent's scribbles with parts also filled out by the student, so I can clearly see that two different people worked on it. 5. Illegibility/poor handwriting creates the obvious problems, especially handwritten essays that look awful. 6. Applications folded 16 times to fit in a small envelope make it look bad; not to mention the ones that come with soda/coffee stains, are sticky from putting a lollipop on them, or are ripped/ripped. 7. Some applications ask for the county or country and students get them mixed up. 8. Many students who have jobs don't mention them on their applications. These jobs often affect the time they have available for activities, so include this information to get a more complete picture of your activities outside of school. 9. And, my favorite, the essay about how much he/she wants to attend University X that gets sent to University Y by mistake. 10. For online applications, students sometimes slide their mouse and click the wrong item in a dropdown menu. (It's amazing how many students say they are from Afghanistan, which usually appears right after the United States in country dropdowns.) 11. Substitute the most natural words from the thesaurus. Parents do not realize that highly intelligent 17-year-olds do not and should not write like 45-year-olds. The apps that stand out don't have the above issues. They "tell" instead of "show". 12. There are a couple of things that cross my mind that give off a bad impression on apps. The first is: a. When students list "hanging out with friends" or "talking on the phone" as an extracurricular activity. b. Then another no-no is blaming the teacher on the personal statement for bad grades. I'm not looking for information so much as why you got a bad grade, but what did you do about it, ie, did you seek additional help? Repeat the course? Etc... I could go on and on with this question! But I'll end with one more thing that infuriates me.... c. Reading a college essay with numerous misspellings and grammatical errors. I'll even forgive a student if she lists another college instead of skipping over a bad attempt at writing the essay. 13. A common mistake is not telling your high school counselor that you are applying to x, y, and z colleges and submitting the necessary forms within the necessary timeframes to ensure your transcript, profile, etc. will be sent to their universities. for their high schools. to. Also, they should remember to submit their SAT or ACT scores to their colleges directly from ETS. b. In addition, each student should be sure to review her transcript before submitting it. Check all of these: spelling of name, Social Security number, address, phone numbers 49

50And names of courses and grades and credits received. You'd be surprised how many transcripts contain errors that students often never realize because they didn't review their transcripts. 14. They don't read the instructions, including the suggested extension and theme message. 15. They don't realize that many colleges that use the Common Application also have supplements. 16. They do not relate what they write to themselves. They write generic essays. They must write details that are unique to them and that only they could have written. 17. One important thing I include these days is that students need to be aware of the impression their email address makes. I encourage you to create a "professional" email address for job and college applications. Offensive email addresses make a bad impression. I recommend all students to use a hotmail address for university applications.[email protected]). There is at least one case I can cite where we did not admit a student in part because her email address suggested sexist and violent behavior towards women. Most of them aren't that bad, but most are dumb at best. Here are the answers from the NACAC (National Association for College Admission Counseling) electronic list of do's and don'ts when applying to college online: Do's and Don'ts! don't do for online applicants! Yes... take the tour online. Before you begin your application, walk through each application step in a "virtual tour." Yes... create a username and password that you will easily remember. Record it and keep it in a safe place. If you lose your password, some colleges allow you to create a new one, but if you forget your username, you may need to start a new application. Yes... please disable any pop-up blockers to see the part of the app that is displayed in pop-up windows. Yes... use the correct browser. Most online applications work only with Internet Explorer 5.0 or higher or Netscape 5.0 or higher (which you can usually download from the application's site). Online applications are highly secure; therefore older browsers are often not equipped to handle the level of encryption required. Yes...follow the instructions and complete all steps. On each page, be sure to scroll to the bottom of the page and the bottom of each popup to avoid missing any information. Don't... forget to save your work. Typically, you don't have more than 40 minutes per web page before it times out. Every time you save an entry or go to a new page, your work is 50

51It is usually stored automatically, but if you plan to leave your app for an extended period of time, to go get a snack or answer the phone, use the save/logout feature to store your app. No... write your personal statement online. Take the time to compose it in a word processing application, such as Microsoft Word, save it as a text file, and then copy and paste it into the appropriate boxes online. Yes...print copies of your personal statement to check your work with your counselor/advisor or an instructor. Yes... please review the summary page carefully. Look for any instances where it says "no information added" and if you didn't mean to leave that area blank, click "modify" to return to the step where you can complete it. No... afraid to ask for help. If you have technical difficulties, please do not hesitate to contact the "Help Desk", "Technical Support" or use the "Contact" links. Click on "Submit Request" when you're done. Your application will not be sent to the University until you do so. Print your receipt and save it! You will have a record of your application identification number and a complete summary of your application. TIPS FOR APPLYING TO COLLEGE ONLINE Set up an email account to be used for college correspondence only. Consider using the Common Application (www.commonapp.org) which is accepted by many private and some public colleges and universities. Print the complete application instructions so you can "check off" tasks as you complete them. Be sure to check if a supplement is required; If the form says Part 1 and there is no Part Two visible, you will generally receive Part 2 after completing Part 1 and/or paying the fee. Print your completed application or application summary and read it before clicking the "submit" button. Make sure that none of your information has been cut off. Keep the printed copy for your university files. Submit your application a week or more before the deadline. Application websites slow down as deadlines approach and sometimes crash. Pay the admission fee by credit card if this option is available. Checks can take weeks to reach the school and this may delay the processing of your application. 51

52Look for the email confirmation that your application has been received. Print and submit the application acknowledgment. Call the university's Admissions Office if you do not receive confirmation within forty-eight hours of submitting. Finally, make sure you have arranged for all supporting documents to be mailed in before the application deadline. See your counselor the day after you click "submit" so the transcript and other materials arrive on time as well. Colleges DO NOT notify schools that students have applied; you must do it. Common Mistakes Students Make on the Online Common Application: 1) Students do not read the instructions. It is the most important thing that prevents them from doing this smoothly. Anytime you don't read the instructions, chances are something will come back to haunt you. Students must print the instructions and read them before beginning to write. 2) Waiting until the Last Minute. They are literally doing this the day before the 11pm deadline. If there is an early decision deadline of December 1, they will be on the computer by November 30. You may run into an inconvenience that has nothing to do with us: your Internet access might be down. Although it is sent instantly, they should not wait until the last minute to do so. 3) Not entering a valid email address. Later they wonder why they haven't heard from the university or received a confirmation message. 4) Not checking the requirements and deadlines of each individual university. There again we have a profile for each university, which provides all the deadlines, fees and complementary information. It's all there, but they send it in late and wonder why they can't select a college from the list. 5) Students are not accurately selecting and saving the colleges they want to apply to. They often select the right school, but forget to save. 6) Students forget to save their data and log out. 7) Not thoroughly checking the app for errors and truncated text. We've got print preview, instructions all over the place, and while you can always type in the HTML input screen, that doesn't mean everything will fit in the PDF output. Please look at the print preview before submitting. What you see in the print preview is exactly what will be broadcast to the universities. 8) Not using the checklist to make sure you have completed all the requirements of the selected universities. There's another tab there that will tell you which colleges accept credit cards, which colleges only accept hard copies." 9) Not checking that they've completed the submission process before logging out. There are a series of screens you go through to make sure that the data is saved in our system on our server, they close before doing so and the application is not complete and is not sent to our system 10) Do not keep track of fees and supplementary documents 11) Do not send a copy printed to member universities that do not accept the electronic version of the Common Application. Now that you know the common pitfalls, visit the Common Application website at http://www.commonapp.org and see how many of their selections there are.

53The admissions staff is typically made up of a large number of younger entry-level staff who are frequently recent college graduates, and a small number of more experienced staff. Entry-level staff are typically called admissions counselors or assistant directors of admissions. The most experienced staff are known as associate directors and the head of the admissions staff may be known as a dean or director of admissions. These are the people who visit high schools, wait tables at college fairs (although this is sometimes done by alumni volunteers), and are responsible for student recruitment. They are also responsible for the selection of students. They read and score the applicants' files and meet as a committee to decide on the composition of the incoming freshmen and the transfer class. Each admissions office is generally organized geographically, with each admissions officer being responsible for a certain group of states or regions. If the office staff you visit is organized that way, ask if you can meet with the person who has the territory where you live. There are many ways that universities evaluate student applications. Some colleges that are not very selective often look for students to meet some minimum standards, often particular SAT or ACT scores and completion of a college preparatory curriculum with grades of C or better. Many public universities administer admissions using some formula, generally known as Academic Index. Public universities often require higher admissions standards for in-state students than for out-of-state students. Twice, once in Florida and once in California, I called an admissions office to inform a university that a student of mine who was denied admission had a noncustodial parent living in that state. In both cases, the admissions officer who spoke to me responded immediately, then they were admitted. It wasn't one of those snap trials described in the best-seller Blink, but a quick look at the formula for in-state and out-of-state admissions. As colleges that use subjective admissions criteria become more selective, they need more and more information to make ever finer distinctions. However, almost all of them have a similar process. They usually have a first reader, normally the person who has that area in their territory, who values ​​each part of the application. First readers are also sometimes assigned alphabetically, randomly, by college (liberal arts, engineering, nursing, education, business, etc.). Sometimes the first readers are those with a specialty. There may be a special liaison with the sports office who reads the athletes' applications. Some universities have applications from students with learning disabilities read by specialists in this area who can interpret more complex test data. Some universities have students who are special cases, such as cases where the development office has marked an application as a potential development case (the parent is likely to contribute a lot of money to the university) or as a very active alumni, read first by the Dean of Admissions. First Reader typically scores a recalculated GPA based only on core courses, class rank as reported by the high school, strength of students' schedule (particularly senior schedule), counselor recommendations, and / or teacher, the essay, the interview, and the extracurricular contributions of the student. Most colleges get two grades at the end: one academic and one non-academic. The academic grade is based primarily on the transcript and is substantiated by the recommendations and the essay. The non-academic grade is based on the extracurricular aspects of the application and can be substantiated by things like recommendations, sometimes essay and interview. Basically, the two ratings give colleges the best estimate of what type of student is applying and what type of person is applying. Rabbi Thornton and Ed Custard, then principal and associate principal of New College in Florida, used to give talks across the country on college application reading and scoring. they used 53

54the mark sheet Rab had used at Vassar College when he worked there and also used at New College: (Ed Custard, 2003) 54

55CANDIDATE EVALUATION SHEET NAME: Joe College ADDRESS: 123 Any Way GO BY: Joe Somewhere in NY 12345-6789 PHONE: 845-555-1234 SS# 111-22-3333 DOB: 10/13/84 GENDER: M RACE: CITIZEN W : Y GRADES H.S. Fantastic High School DATES: 9/98 6/02 GPA/UNITS _______ LAST RIC GPA: 1/5000 COURSE SELECTION IB AP H R FROM OTHER _____________ SAT COMBINED: 1300 V 600 M 700 NATIONAL CODE OF MERIT: SF RIC__________ SAT II: EXAMS OF SUBJECT: BY 59 EN 59 _____ ______ LAST CS ACT COMPOSITE 32 ADVANCED PLACEMENT AH 5 CH 5 _____________ ESSAY STYLE AND CONTENT _____________________________________________________ ESSAY _______ GRADE WORK STYLE AND CONTENT ________________________________________ ARTICLE________ COUNSELOR- HR R NR NA_____________________________________________________ CREC_________ PRO FACULTY/CLASS HR R NR NA __________________________________________________ TREC________ INTERVIEW AND WITH /DATE_____________________________________________________ INTV__________ EXTRACURICULARS______________________________________________________ EC____________ __________________________________________________________________________ MOT__________ __________________________________________________________________________ READER____________________________________ DATE_________________ RATING/DECISION_____________________ HIGHLY SELECTIVE CANDIDATE RATING SYSTEM ( Ed Custard, 1993) RATING Course Selection 1 Full International Baccalaure ate or Honors Program 2 Many AP/Honors or Best Available 3 3-4 AP/Honors 4 1-2 AP/Honors 55

565 Solid Five Per Quarter 6 Light Load 7 Weak 8 Not College Prep GPA 1 3.8 4.0 of 4.0 93-100 2 3.5 3.7 90-92 3 3.2-3.4 87 -89 4 2.9-3.1 84-88 5 2.6-2.8 81-83 6 2.3-2.5 78-80 7 2.0-2.2 75-77 8 Less than 2.0 Less than 75 Class range 1 1 % Top 2 Top 5% 3 Top 10% 4 Top 15% 5 Top 20% 6 Top 30% 7 Top 50% 8 Below Top 50% Standardized Test Scores 1 SAT: 1500 and above ACT: 33 and above 2 1400 -1490 30-32 3 1350-1390 29 4 1300-1340 27-28 5 1200-1290 25-26 56

576 1100-1190 22-24 7 1000-1000 20-21 8 Under 1000 Under 20 Essay Writing/Style 1 Truly inspired. Powerful 2 Fluid and dynamic 3 Solidly written. Insightful 4 Sound but uninspired 5 Needs some work 6 Lots of mechanical issues 7 Scattered, inconsistent 8 Not at all in stadium Counselor recommendation/Teacher recommendation 1 Enthusiastic support. A super match. 2 Very supportive, knows college 3 Supportive and detail 4 Supportive but generic 5 Positive with weaknesses 6 Unsure about mix 7 Unsupportive, backs down 8 Very poor Extracurricular/Personal mix A Truly unique, talented and motivated B A successful leader, dedicated and focused C An ambitious entrepreneur D Involved, active. A collaborator E A collaborator, but not very active G Inwardly drawn to individual activities 57

58H An uninvolved loner I No constructive interest at all Interview 1 A Dynamo! What are we waiting for?! 2 A standout with real promise 3 Very bright and eager to learn 4 Good and solid - likely to be accepted 5 Likeable, but with some drawbacks 6 A truly risky candidate 7 Not likely to be accepted 8 A definite rejection Match for university 1 Top priority . Recruit at all costs 2 A great addition. Scholarship! 3 Our true top end. Enroll Now 4 The Heart of Our Student Body 5 Uninspiring Candidate 6 A Bad Match. Hard to Take 7 Not Ready for the Challenge 8 A Quick Out of the Pool In the end, each student scored a 1-8 on an academic scale and A-I on the non-academic scale. The number and letters vary from college to college, but almost all have some common measure they can use when comparing applicants from different readers. It is impossible for every admissions officer to read every application, so this allows for a way to compare applicants against each other. From there, a variety of things can happen. At some universities, all applications automatically go to a second reader. The second reader does not read the request as carefully as the first reader. Usually just trying to see if there are any inconsistencies or omissions in early reader ratings. Other universities have the Dean or Director read all applications before a decision is made. Others allow the first reader to make the decision to accept or reject applicants at the ends of the applicant pool. With the New College Rating system, a college can, for example, automatically admit all grades 1-A, 58

591-B and 2-A applicants and reject all applicants with an academic grade of 7 or 8 or a 5 with a non-academic grade below a C. Most schools that are highly selective generally separate the applicant pool into clear admits, clear denies, and those in between. The more selective the school, the lower the percentage of clearances that the group admits and the higher the percentage of clearances that it denies. Except at the most selective universities, it's relatively clear who clearly denies or admits. Students who score well above accepted students from previous years are generally admitted, as are those who are clearly admissible and are underrepresented minority students, recruited or legacy athletes. Of course, there are two important factors to fit into this picture. On the one hand, with universities that have an early plan, this process is carried out two or more times, and the composition of the early group can have an impact on the regular admissions decision. Second, student selection is always a guessing game. The admissions staff has to judge whether the entering class is markedly different from the admitted class of previous years. In general, admissions standards do not change dramatically from year to year, but in rare cases they do and admissions staff have to judge whether the indications at any given time illustrate whether the group as a whole is stronger or weaker. than the previous year. They also have to guess how many admitted students will eventually enroll. If they guess too low, they will have to waitlist or admit transfer students to fill the class, preventing them from closing class at an increasingly late date or worse, having empty dorms and under-enrolled classrooms in the fall. If they guess too much, they end up in an equally harrowing dilemma: too many students enrolled, overcrowded dorms, classrooms, and the cafeteria. Therefore, many universities take steps to reduce this uncertainty. One is by admitting an increasing number of early decision binding students. Unless the financial aid package is inadequate or the student breaks the early decision commitment (both relatively rare), all admitted students enroll in college, with almost 100% performance. Second, many universities are placing a greater emphasis on perceived interest. They want to find a way to judge which admitted students are most likely to attend. They do studies of what correlates to a student choosing to attend and they keep records of these things. They mark on the application if the student completed a card at a college fair, came for a high school visit by admissions staff, attended an open house, visited campus, or had an interview. Thus, the eventual decision to deny or admit may be based on factors other than academic and extracurricular. The students who are most likely to attend, either those who apply early or those who are deemed by the university to have a high perceived interest, often have an advantage in admissions. Some colleges may reject highly qualified students who rate very low in perceived interest as a way of sending a message to the school, student, or community that they do not want to be used as a safety school. University representatives often talk about finding a good match between the student and the university, but many students misperceive this. Most believe they are more likely to be admitted if they are similar to the average student in school. They think Bennington wants artistic kids, MIT technocrats, and Johns Hopkins pre-med students. Actually, Bennington would prefer scientists, MIT creative writing students, and Johns Hopkins anthropology students. Being a good match can mean students who bring some intellectual, cultural, racial, or social diversity to campus while remaining consistent with the school's core academic tenets. At more selective colleges that use subjective criteria in their admissions process, once a file is read and graded, one of three things generally happens. Some students are just as strong (or are good enough and have a strong push from a coach, the development office, the president of the university, etc. 59

60al.) that are admitted without further review. Others are weak enough in the group to not warrant further consideration. Often the decision is based solely or primarily on the academic and non-academic grades a student earns. A third group, which can often be the majority of the applicant pool, goes to the committee for further consideration. This committee can take a wide variety of forms. This can be the entire admissions staff or just a smaller group of staff. It may include teachers or it may be made up entirely of teachers. The only commonality is that the student's files are presented for further review and discussion. Probably the most common committee structure is for the first reader to present the applicant's file. Most colleges have admissions representatives, each of whom has a geographic territory. These representatives are the ones who visit the high schools in that area, are the first readers of applications from students in that area, and introduce students from that area to the admissions committee. Whether by circumstance or by design, most staff act as advocates for the students they introduce, while other staff members play more of a devil's advocate role.17 On the committee, all is well. discovered about the student and the committee makes an initial determination about the destination of the students: admit, deny, waiting list. Some universities make even finer distinctions. Skidmore College, for example, places students in this phase into six categories: High Admission, Low Admission, High Waitlist, Low Waitlist, High Denial, and Low Denial. Colleges may also introduce a student to allow admissions staff to call the school counselor for information on some unanswered questions. Once all the initial decisions are made, a whole series of checks and balances ensues. Looking at the recent rate of return, are there the right number of admissions to get enough students but not too many, and are there enough students on the wait list to make up any potential shortfalls? Are there an adequate number of underrepresented minority students, science students, gang members, or football players? Many colleges review the tentative decision lists by high school and make sure they have treated each one fairly. After admissions decisions are mailed, power passes from the university to the student. Now it is the student who must make the decision and the university conducts a press campaign to enroll as many admitted students as possible. They organize programs at universities for accepted students with all the bells and whistles. College students present answer the phones to urge accepted students to attend. College blogs light up with insider posts from each college. Deposits, along with signed commitments, are due May 1, a common response date accepted by most accredited universities. Most universities expect to enroll only a few students less than the total number of spaces. It is especially problematic if too many students accept offers of admission, since there is not enough space to accommodate them. Any shortfall is made up by going to the list of students who have decided to remain on the waiting list (usually by returning a postcard). Some colleges, like Bucknell, list their waitlist and offer spots in numerical order. Others may return to the committee or choose to admit students based on their qualification. The rules for the waiting list may differ from those of the regular process. While financial need is not typically a major factor in admission to well-endowed colleges, few colleges will waitlist students who have very high financial need. Furthermore, where perceived interest may be 17 Jacques Steinberg's The Gatekeeper offers a detailed picture of how an admissions committee works. 18 Many students believe that if more than one strong student applies to a highly selective college, the admission chances of both students will suffer. My experience is that this is not true. I have had 4 students admitted early one year at Swarthmore and 5 another year at Kenyon. What is more accurate is that colleges will admit at least one applicant from a school that has a strong applicant pool. 60

61important in the initial admissions process, it is vital in the waiting list process. The worst thing a college wants is to keep going over and over (and over and over) on the waiting list to get the class. If there is a certain college where a student is waitlisted and the student will definitely attend, it is not a bad idea for the student to ask their counselor to notify the college. 61

62NACAC: Factors in Admissions19 (Percent of Institutions Giving Significant Weight to Factors) Grades, College Prep 80 Class Rank 28 Admissions Tests 60 Grades, All Courses 57 Counselor Recommendation 18 Teacher Recommendation 18 Essay 25 Interview 9 Work/Activities 8 Affordability 2 Status Tests 6 Subject Tests 5 Residence 2 Race/Ethnicity 2 Demonstrated Interest 7 Alumni Relations 1 College Board 2003 Annual Survey: Percentage of Institutions Rating Factors Important or Very Important School Achievement 93 Test Scores 87 Recommendations 50 Essay 44 Interview 33 Activities 30 Standardized Tests Beginning with the class of 2006, there are now three sections of the SAT Reasoning test: the reading section (formerly the verbal section), the math section, and the of writing. The jury is still out on how universities will treat the writing section results and, now that they can download actual essays written by students, how they will use this capability. Some universities have already stated that they will ignore the writing score, while others are adjusting the old scale from 1600 to 2400, treating each of the three subscores equally. The ACT has a new optional essay that will similarly be treated differently by different colleges. There are a wide variety of ways that universities use standardized tests. Many public universities have an academic index with class rank and/or GPA and SAT tables. Generally, students above a certain grade point average are admitted and those below are rejected. Colleges that require a 1800 on the SATs and a 3.0 unweighted GPA may accept students who have a 2.5 if their SATs are above 2000 or with an SAT of 1600 as long as their GPA is above 3.5. Most colleges use the SAT or ACT in conjunction with other parts of the application. It's not a single measurement that matters, but the image that emerges from a collection of things in the application file. The main use of standardized tests is to have a common measure to judge students. The less familiar a college is with a certain high school, the more important standardized tests become. If a college's admissions office can't get a good idea of ​​the rigors 19 NACAC, State of College Admissions, 2004-2005 62

63of a student's schedule or the meaning of extracurricular participation, they trust more information that they feel is reliable. A student with high scores in English but low scores in reading and writing and a low essay will make her grades suspect. Colleges that receive far more applications than they can handle often use both scores and SATs as their initial ranking mechanism. Students with low scores or grades who have nothing convincing to speak for admission are the first to miss the admissions cutoff. In my experience, non-special case students—primarily legacy, underrepresented minority students, and athletes (but also any student with unusually strong talent or distinction)—are rarely admitted if their class rank or standardized scores are significantly below below average. of admitted students. Many college admissions staff in their conversations with students say that standardized test scores are the last thing they consider when looking at students. However, this false and misleading statement is technically true: as long as an applicant approaches the mean of accepted students, small variations in test scores are unlikely to have a significant impact on a student's chances of admission. . However, as test scores move further from the mean, either higher or lower, the more likely they are to affect admission. At universities that reject more than half of the applicants, test scores within an acceptable range are a necessary but not sufficient condition for admission. Assuming a student attends a high school where most students go to four-year universities, the student has no distinguishable (and usually measurable) talents or strengths, and the student takes an appropriately demanding schedule, admission to all but at most selective colleges (where admission is so unpredictable as to border on capricious) it is relatively predictable. We do a scattered gram of SAT scores and class rank for each student in our senior class and there are few exceptions for who gets admitted. Students significantly above a certain range are generally admitted, those below are generally rejected, and those within an acceptable range generally have other factors affecting admissions. Many college guidebooks and individual college view books list standardized test scores in the 25th to 75th percentile range, meaning that the middle 50% of the admitted class falls within this range. Only 25% of the class have scores below the bottom of the range and another 25% have scores above the upper range. This is a good measure of where a student's scores rank relative to other students being considered for that college. Other things being equal (particularly grades, the rigor of high school, and the robustness of students' schedules), students within this range are generally acceptable candidates. Students with scores below 25% with no other important factors in place are generally unrealistic candidates for that college. There are a variety of factors that can alter this range for a given student. Given that, nationally, scores for underrepresented minority students (Hispanics, African-Americans, and Native Americans) typically fall between 225 and 300 points on the SAT (with a similar difference on the ACT) points below the median score for white students , the range of scores for these students reflect this. If a college has a mid-50% range of 1500-1950, the range for underrepresented minority students would be closer to 1350-1700. Some studies have suggested that applying for early decision is worth 150 points on the SAT, and legacy students likely have a similar advantage. Recruited athletes generally need to have a minimum score to pass admission and depending on how strong the student athlete is, this can be significantly below the college average. An All American Field Hockey player I mentored who applied to one of the most selective colleges in the nation (where admitted students had an average SAT score of 63

641500+ on a 1600 scale) was told she needed to maintain all Bs or higher and score 1200+ on the SATs to be admitted. There are many opinions about the effectiveness of preparing for the SATs. Organizations like the Princeton Review and Kaplan boast of high score increases with short courses, while the College Board claims that these increases are only likely with long-term work and preparation. But some things are clear. One is that, unfortunately, SAT preparation has become part of the fabric of the college application process for many groups of students. Students who do not do any preparation for the SAT or ACT are at a disadvantage compared to students who do. Does this mean that every student who applies to college must spend thousands of dollars and hundreds of hours preparing for college entrance exams? Absolutely not. Princeton Review, Kaplan, and the College Board sell inexpensive software that provides sophisticated analysis of areas that need attention. Students who are motivated can do everything offered in a course on their own. This usually involves taking practice tests to familiarize yourself with the types of questions found on the test (such as sentence completion, reading comprehension, or sentence correction) and to make sure you take adequate time. You should also make sure you are familiar with the arithmetic, algebra, and geometry skills required in the math section. Simple strategies, such as reading the questions that follow a passage before reading the passage, are useful test-taking skills. There are significant differences in the effects of preparation on various parts of the SAT and ACT. Perhaps the most difficult part of increasing is the (verbal) reading test. I've rarely seen an exception to an observation I've had on this test: I can guess a student's verbal score within 50 points with one question: how much do you like to read. Voracious readers, those who are reading difficult material at every spare moment, score in the 700s. Regular pleasure readers score 600. Students who read sparingly or only as assigned score lower. My nephew, who was an average student but always read authors like Joyce and Dostoevsky for pleasure, got a perfect 800 without even preparing. One uses verbal skills all day, every day, from the day he begins to speak and gains the ability to be straightforward with written language through years of reading. Increasing this ability in a short course is extremely difficult. One uses math skills, on the other hand, in a very limited way. Even advanced math students spend less than an hour a day learning math and even less time using computer skills. Concepts or skills that were not properly learned or forgotten can be refreshed in a short amount of practice, often resulting in significant score gains. Students must take practice tests, see which problems they got wrong, and then see if they can work backwards from the answer to figure out the answer. Most written test preparation programs and materials have detailed explanations of how each answer is obtained. Students should seek help from their parents, teachers, or guardians for questions they do not yet understand. Not all students will have the skills or background to be able to handle the more difficult questions. Most test questions are listed from easiest to hardest, and test preparation materials identify questions as easy, medium, and hard. PSAT and PACT scores are organized by question type and difficulty. If an initial practice test or the PSAT/PACT results in a student correctly answering less than half of the intermediate questions and almost none of the more difficult questions, the student is encouraged to work to ensure that all questions are answered correctly. easy questions and a higher percentage of correct median questions. This student is unlikely to see much benefit in spending a lot of time trying to solve the most difficult questions. science 64

Sixty-fiveThe reasoning section of the ACT is similar to the math section, where practice can result in a significant score increase. The multiple choice section of the writing test is somewhere in the middle. Some of the skills needed to perform well in this section are similar to those developed through reading, such as understanding passages, knowing the nuances of language and vocabulary, and being able to mentally manipulate language. But many of the grammar and usage skills that are tested are very similar to math skills in that they are finite and specific. So the preparation for this section is likely to have an impact, although not as big as the math section. There has not been enough research on the essay section of the writing test and the results of the preparation on it. There is certainly some degree of formulation in the five paragraph essay that practice will help in this section. It has been shown that there is a high correlation between longer essays and a higher score and there are some conventions that help produce a successful essay for the writing test. John Katzman, president of the Princeton Review, used the College Board's scoring rubric for grading the works of authors like Shakespeare and Hemmingway (they didn't score well) to point out that fast, clear writing is not the same as good writing. The other major tests that may be required are the SAT Subject Tests (formerly known as the Achievement Tests and SAT II). There are about 100 universities that require Subject Tests (see appendix). With the introduction of the writing test for the SAT and ACT, most colleges that require this test require two subject tests, although some still require three. Most of these colleges that require this test will allow a student to take the ACT instead of the SAT Reasoning and Subject tests. Subject tests are different from the reasoning test in that they are specifically linked to course material and are designed to be studied. There are a number of things that can determine which subject tests you decide to take. First, it is important to look at the specific requirements of the colleges being considered. If one or more require a particular test, say math I or IIC, then one should prepare and take this test. Some tests, such as Mathematics or World Languages, which should be taken as late as possible, to increase course work, are likely to result in higher scores. In subjects where the material is finite rather than cumulative, such as science or history, exams should be taken as close to the end of the course as possible. Students who are strong in Biology or Chemistry who take these courses in 9th or 10th grade and who think they may be seeking colleges that require Subject Tests and are strong in science should take these tests in June of year in which they take the course. . Likewise for World or United States History. I do not advise students to take the SAT or ACT reasoning tests before the spring of their junior year. Even students who apply early can take the SAT or ACT in May and/or June, as well as October (in many states) and/or November. Your school's guidance counselor can help you come up with the best testing schedule. Students must take the SAT or ACT at least twice but no more than three times. Look at these tests as analogous to running a race. If you were asked what your fastest time was, say, for a 100-yard dash, you wouldn't run it once and say that's your fastest time. You may have gotten off to a bad start, timed poorly, or been so anxious that your performance was lower than it should be. After two sprints, you have a pretty good idea of ​​how fast you are, and it's unlikely you'll run any faster than you did in three tries. Sixty-five

66Anxiety is both friend and foe on performance tests. A moderate amount increases performance, too high an amount is disastrous. There was a sick study in which rats had to navigate an underwater maze to avoid drowning. In what resulted in something called Yerkes Dodson's Law, the study showed that stress resulted in increased performance only up to a point. After that point, there was not a gradual but a precipitous decline in performance. The point here is that one should become familiar enough with standardized tests not to feel overwhelmed on test day. MYTHS AND LEGENDS ABOUT THE SAT The SAT is the most important criterion for college admission, well, it's not unimportant, but the main criterion for admission to virtually every college and university in the world is academic performance, strength of courses taken and grades within them. The SAT may gain in relative importance for scholarship contests; for schools within the Ivy League and the California university system (because of the rates they use to compare students); and for certain schools with highly technical requirements, but it is not the most critical part of one's application. SAT scores from different test dates are independent and do not accumulate on a student's test record. registered from the ninth grade onwards. You can't choose which ones are sent and which ones are skipped; they are all transmitted cumulatively once you designate a college or university to receive them. This is also the case with SAT II tests now because the Score Choice option whereby individual subject tests can be withheld or released at the student's discretion has been removed (as of June 2002). If one takes the SAT more than once, the colleges and universities average student scores between the times the test is taken. No college and university known to college admissions counselors engage in such a practice. At virtually all admissions offices, you will receive credit for the highest verbal score and highest math score regardless of when they were taken (there are a few colleges that are very strict and won't split scores across dates, such schools still they do not average, however). For example, let's say you take the SAT in May of your junior year and score 700 in verbal, 550 in math. Then in senior year you take it again and get 650 verbal, 650 math. Your reported score for college admissions purposes is then 1350, the verbal 700 from your first date, and the mathematical 650 from your second date. ) take it Although SAT profiles can vary between test dates, the differences are negligible, and the SAT folks adjust the score band to address even the slightest variations. It doesn't matter when you take the SAT as far as its impact on your score. If you don't take the SAT, you can't get admitted to a college 66

67there are over a hundred four-year colleges and universities, some of them quite selective and of high quality, for which taking the SAT is optional. Also, virtually every college and university in the country will accept the ACT (the smaller cousin of the SAT) instead of the SAT. school trips I don't know how this rumor and its variants started, but please don't believe this. Orthodox Jews, Seventh-day Adventists, and members of other religious groups with the proper credentials from their clergy are the only people in the country who can take an SAT I or II on Sunday because special administrations have been set up for them. . No other party may join a Sunday administration for any other reason. It is possible and even desirable to take only one section of the SAT I (either the verbal or math portion) on a given test date. Well, technically it's possible for a student to answer only the verbal items and leave all math questions blank, but that wouldn't be wise. The math score of 200, the lowest possible total, will still be reported, and what a shame would that be? You are not allowed to set up an administration of the SAT I in which only one section of the test is administered. The same vocabulary words are recycled on various SAT tests, so it is wise to memorize lists of these particular items. Some studies that have been done on the SAT indicate that there are some items that seem to appear a bit more frequently, but the effect on the test and subsequent results is negligible. Studies indicate that answer C is used most often on the SAT and therefore would benefit a student. to guess C when unsure of a particular item, legitimate studies indicate no such tendency for any response card. It is not advisable to guess the items on the SAT because a penalty is imposed for incorrect answers, such that for every four items answered incorrectly, an additional sum is deducted (equivalent to what would result from one incorrect item). If a student discovers an item on the SAT that is unfamiliar to them, it is more appropriate to leave it blank rather than guess. On the other hand, if it is possible to reduce the question choices so that there are only two options left, then one's best bet is to guess. Here's an example: Let's say each verbal item counts ten points and you leave ten blank. That would mean a deduction of 100 points. However, if those same ten items were answered incorrectly, the deduction would be 125 points (rounded up to 130 points). Twenty blank items versus twenty incorrect items generate a difference of fifty points. If you match sixty items and leave twenty blank, your score will be 600. However, if you match sixty items and miss twenty, your score is 550 (these numbers are for comparison only; the actual amount deducted for blank or incorrect answers may not be ten points). on any given SAT test) (from Cygus Vanni, Guidance Counselor, Cherry Hill West High School, NJ Counselor and Teacher Recommendations 67

68Recommendations, such as the essay and interview, are rarely seen as a separate part of the application, but rather as something that gives depth and meaning to the other parts of the application, namely the transcript, extracurricular activities, and standardized test scores. An admissions counselor can do a quick read through an application and make some judgments about where a student fits into the pool of potential applicants. Just as students make decisions about whether college is unrealistic, unrealistic, unrealistic, or safe, colleges make the same judgments about applicants. The transcript provides vital information about how much a student challenged herself, whether the applicant has particular academic strengths or weaknesses, how she has performed in high school, whether there were any trends (up or down) academically, and where the gap is. student in relation to his class. The school profile, or previous experience with students from that high school, gives indications of the rigors of high school and the academic opportunities provided to students. Test scores say something about a student's academic potential. And a list of extracurricular activities says a lot about what the student is interested in and what she has been doing outside of the classroom. Recommendations bring all these things to life. They let the reader know if a certain activity is a passing fancy or a lifelong passion. They explain unusual circumstances and highlight any outstanding strengths the applicant has. They also provide corroboration to the student's grades, courses, and activities. Ed Custard, former dean of admissions at New College, used to accurately state that as colleges become more selective, they are looking for not just talented students, but distinguished ones. Recommendations are an important way that colleges discover what really sets students apart. I have conducted workshops for teachers on how to write letters of recommendation for students and here are some guidelines I have given them: Some less obvious points about college recommendations: Keep writing in the present tense about the student's qualities. You can write. She made a project for me. But instead of saying that she was motivated, she writes that she is motivated. Leave a stronger, albeit subtle, message. Avoid the term seemed. Again, instead of saying she seemed motivated, write that she is motivated. Spend some time adding at least one thing to each recommendation that you can only say about that student. If you can do it descriptively, great. If not, use a specific example of what the student did to illustrate her point. Always try to discuss a specific, best example of student work on her recommendation. Think about capturing the essence of the student instead of describing it. Remember that teachers' recommendations are read negatively. By this I mean that the lack of description of some quality will be assumed to be negative. A recommendation that speaks only of a student's ability will read that the student is not highly motivated (and vice versa). Save overt negative comments for the more egregious behaviors. If you're really stuck on a recommendation, even think about an instance where you thought the student showed some positive behavior, performance, or potential. Use that as an example of what the student is capable of. 68

69Before writing a recommendation, write down those qualities that most distinguish that student. When you finish reading what you have written, go through the list and make sure that you have not only described but also illustrated those qualities. Don't focus too much on character when writing an academic recommendation. Nice, sweet, charming, funny, and courteous are terms that, if overused, give the appearance that the student lacks academic substance. Don't be afraid to say no to a student you don't think you can adequately support, especially if you have strong reservations about the student's character, integrity, and honesty. Modify the sentence structure to ensure that you do not start too many sentences with the students' names. Be careful about the use of the physical description of the student. Whether a student is beautiful, stunning, handsome, or an Adonis is irrelevant to the description of a student's character and performance. Never write anything for which you can be sued. Express facts as facts and opinion as opinion. Don't write about anything negative that you don't know to be true. Never discuss a student's disability without first obtaining the written permission of the student's parent. Avoid advances at all costs. If you don't feel like you can be direct about something, don't write it. Try to address a theme in your recommendation that will create a lasting impression on the reader. Start with that theme, support it throughout the recommendation, and conclude by reiterating it. Here are a few more teacher recommendation tips (stolen from Sarah McGinty -Myers): Get started fast Be specific Keep academic and personal factors in mind Connect with the rest of the app More tips Reveal yourself/your experience in the letter Stick to one page Think about learning Behaviors Telling, not selling Things to avoid Pure praise 69

70A list of activities A recommendation for The Andersons "She is a very nice young lady" Get help Ask students for a "resume" and a paragraph about how/why they chose Alma Mater U. Ask students to think of their best work in your class Ask for stamped envelopes and the due date for each letter Consider setting up a support day for writing recommendations/essays And finally, some of Cigus Vanni's tips: MEET THE GUIDELINES FOR WRITING COLLEGE RECOMMENDATIONS Know Your Subject and your target audience Learn and acquire as much information and insight as you can about the student you are writing for and the college(s) you are applying to. Ask your students to provide this through personal contact, and use brag sheets (where students and/or parents provide written information to a counselor) only when necessary. Understand as best you can the ethics, atmosphere, and cultural imprints of the college(s) to the college(s) your student may apply to, but DO NOT intrude like an expert at the college(s) to the college(s) your student can apply to Phrases like Drew is a perfect match for Rockford or Rockford was designed with Drew in mind are judgmental what are you doing. Leave this up to the professional admissions officers to decide. You are not a recruiter for a university. You certainly can and should cite reasons why the student-institution pairing seems appropriate to you, but skip the extremes and superlatives. In fact, it's much better to make sure your letter refers to SPECIFIC qualities, achievements, personal anecdotes, and concrete examples. Vague references and third-party citations don't read well with college admissions officers. It's perfectly fine to mention what a teacher may have told you about a specific student, but the bulk of the letter should not go beyond first-person references. Personal connections to a student read well, and need not be related to academic development or scholastic potential. It is okay to describe informal interactions with the student and develop a sense of her personality. Writing to impress a college admissions officer is neither necessary nor desirable, so be careful to avoid writing a paper in English or composing an exercise in sesquipedal prose. What counts is not how well you write, but how effectively you can communicate. The college admissions officers aren't grading your letter, they're trying to figure out what you're looking for.

71know about the student in question and whether it would be appropriate to admit him to your school. It is certainly important to pay attention to grammar and usage, but it is neither necessary nor desirable to produce a publishable document. If form trumps function, there is a good chance that the letter will be left empty of meaningful content and rather dry. Therefore, it is better to be sincere, authentic, passionate and real. Your students will be better served by a serious letter that doesn't strive to present them as perfect and helps them come alive in an admissions office. This is what you would say to a student writing an essay for college, right? Let the admissions office see you come to life! Well, that's our job as well when writing college recommendations. Look at the letter of recommendation as a way to develop your student and provide development perspective. The main difference outside of subject matter between a teacher recommendation and a counselor recommendation is perspective. Teacher letters are snapshots, individual photographs (occasionally a page of images) taken at a given time in a particular context. Counselor letters are mini-albums, micro-yearbooks if you will, relating student growth and development over time and across contexts. Showing your pride in a student who overcomes substantial learning difficulties in the 9th grade and is now shining in his senior year, what a great way to introduce a student! Informing the university of the choices (even the not-so-good ones) your student made growing up, and now being able to support them as they become a more defined individual. Teachers rarely have students for more than a year. Under ideal circumstances, you might know a student for four years and what a valuable perspective to provide. Avoid making comparisons with other students who have applied to or are currently attending the university(s) in question. If such information is ever to be shared, it should be done in private with a college admissions officer with whom you have developed a trust and liking over the years. Unless such context has been fed, any comparison would be unfair and misleading. Each student swims individually in an applicant pool and it is not necessary to mention another student in her letter. Unless you've created a universally acceptable form for admissions offices, fill out the information each college asks for. Yes, it can be annoying to provide duplicate information. How many times must we write in our high school code each year? There's a reason colleges design their forms the way they do: They've researched office procedures designed to manage the flow of applications and support individual reading of applications. If the student you've written for has incomplete information, you can give that school a chance to deny them admission. Not all colleges can call you to provide missing information, and they certainly won't be happy if repeated instances of missing information occur. Feel free to be smart (but never cute), original and spontaneous, but always remember that the letter is about the student and NOT about you! Never lose sight of the fact that a counselor's letter of recommendation is offered on behalf of the student! of the student and not as a vehicle of self-gratification or illustration of wit on the composer's part! 71

72Always, always, always keep a copy of every letter you write, but go to great lengths to make sure your letters don't read like copies of one another. Sure, it's tempting to offer fairly standard letters or borrow from one letter to another, But this is not so. serve your student or you. All selective colleges read and use letters of recommendation in a meaningful way and that is their incentive to be sure to do what is best for their students. It is important for students to make the job easier for both the counselor and teachers to write effective recommendations. The two are somewhat different. Most selective colleges require a counselor's recommendation, but a relatively small percentage require a teacher's recommendation. Therefore, the counselor's recommendation should give an overview of the student's academic and social strengths, while the teacher's recommendation should give a picture of the teacher's experiences with the student, focusing primarily on the student's academic qualities. There are some standing principles regarding teacher recommendations: Third-year teachers of year-long academic courses are often the best choice. Senior teachers are fine if a student doesn't apply early to college. Sophomore or Freshman teachers should only be used if the student returned to that same teacher at a later time. Using teachers one had as a freshman gives the appearance that no high-class teacher would give a strong recommendation. The same is true for teachers of half-year courses or courses like art or music (unless the student is pursuing a professional degree). Use teachers who know the student best and who seem to appreciate what they have to offer the most. Students frequently choose the professors who give the best grades or the most impressive-sounding courses. The student must think about what that specific teacher would likely write. Choose teachers who write the most specific and comprehensive comments on school assignments or projects; they are likely to do the same with the teacher's recommendation. Choose teachers who can write about the academic areas that interest your student the most and in which they have the best talent. Save assignments and projects, particularly during junior year, and return the best ones to teachers so they can refer to them in their letters of recommendation. As mentioned above, letters of recommendation are always stronger if they cite specific examples of a student's work. Except in rare cases, only students seeking technical careers (or when required by a particular university) should seek letters of recommendation from math teachers. Many may take offense at this, but most math teachers don't write things that really set students apart. They often say things like the student regularly volunteers to solve problems on the board or complete homework. Few seem to accurately capture that a student has a quick mind or creative problem-solving ability. Students should give teachers plenty of notice that you may be using them for teacher recommendations, usually before the end of the junior year. This gives teachers 72

73opportunity to prepare letters of recommendation over the summer (if desired). Usually, the best recommendation writers are also the most popular, and giving them recommendation forms unannounced up to a few weeks before the deadline is likely to result in a rushed and less developed letter of recommendation. Students should be direct in asking the teacher if he or she can write a strong recommendation for the student. Teachers often grudgingly agree to write a letter even if they feel they can't write a strong one. Students must give them a way out in this case. Students should only ask one or two teachers (depending on what colleges require) to write letters of recommendation. Teachers usually write a letter that is sent to all colleges to which the student applies. Unless a college requires specific subjects, it is abusive for different teachers to write letters of recommendation for different colleges. Students should always provide the appropriate forms (with the student area completely filled out!) and addresses in a stamped envelope for teachers. It's also a great idea for students to clearly put the application deadline date on the outside of each envelope. Students must provide a cover letter to the teacher, letting them know anything specific or unusual about the colleges they are applying to or the academic program being considered. They should also thank the teacher in advance for taking the time and energy to write the recommendation and offer to provide any additional information the writer may need. Students should tactfully check close to the deadline date to see if the teacher's recommendations have been submitted. If the answer is no, the student, one day before the deadline, must remind the teacher of the deadline. A couple of weeks later, the student should write a thank you note to the teacher and check with the college to make sure the teacher's recommendations have arrived and the application is complete. There are a few slightly different things that need to be done for counselor recommendation: Students need to meet their counselor! They should drop by, without their parents, just to chat. The counselor needs to write a recommendation that distinguishes the student. This is quite difficult if they barely know the student. Students must write an autobiographical statement for the counselor. It should highlight how the student differs from her peers. A few things to consider adding: What would her best friend say about her? What awards or honors did she receive? What does she spend the most time outside of school? What does she plan to do for her future? What influenced or affected you the most? What are her values ​​and interests? What is the most important thing to her? What does she enjoy doing the most? What are her hopes, wishes and dreams? What are the things in her life that have had a big impact on her, either positively or negatively? You may also want to include a summary of the activities of the last few years. Parents are encouraged to write something to the counselor about their child. Don't be afraid to brag. Say what you feel really sets your child apart. 73

74If there is a special talent, give the counselor a chance to observe it. Occasionally a student wants to add additional recommendations from people who know them very well, such as an employer, pastor, or coach. I would limit this to ONE only. If your son wants to make sure the college is aware of more than one person's feelings, have the recommender send a letter to the counselor, who can include that person's comments in his recommendation letter. Additional Letters of Recommendation - From NACAC's Electronic List Personally, I think one or at most two additional recommendations could be added, IF they would add something significant about the applicant that the university would not otherwise learn. Two points I would have: 1. The record I have seen is 20 recommendations. I'd say 18 said "he's a great guy" and not much else. Long story short with him: He stayed on the waiting list, and none of those letters changed a vote in committee. 2. I tell people that a file has a finite amount of time in committee. An amount of information takes time away from careful consideration of any individual piece. Have you heard the adage: the thicker the file, the thicker the student? An additional, well-located and well-connected recommendation can help. 15 won't. And it's usually a well-placed phone call more than a letter. For what it's worth, I just answered a student who asked a similar question. Here's how I responded: Based on conversations I've had with college admissions counselors, they're more interested in getting recommendations from people who know you and can speak first-hand about the qualities and characteristics you possess that make you a good fit. good candidate. (which for you is a long list!). They want to know what you are like as a student (teacher recommendation) and an overview of you (counselor recommendation). Sometimes students have circumstances where an employer or someone who has supervised volunteer work can also write an excellent recommendation that speaks to character, work ethic, etc. I don't know if this person has any influence in the admissions office, but he does. , it would probably be more effective for her to contact the admissions offices behind the scenes. She has a limited number of recommendations that she will want to submit. I'm not sure if this person can offer the information that college admissions officers are really looking for. I'm sure she can write you a great letter of recommendation, but I think if you can't support her through direct interactions, your value will be lost with the college representative. Too much of this name-dropping behavior will make them appear to be pandering/absorbing. It's not a good thing. Either the kid is college material or he's not. No amount of hookups will really change that, despite what people think. I advise clients that it is okay to send an additional recommendation letter with some stipulations. This should not be another academic letter, but rather someone who can talk to students about qualities that are displayed outside of the classroom. For example, a coach, scout leader, employer, club advisor, community service advisor. I also tell them that a letter from the president is not going to make a difference if all George can say is 74

75that I know the mother of the applicants and I am sure that she has done a good job raising this child and would therefore make an excellent addition to her university. Also, if the additional recommender does not have a personal, in-depth knowledge of the applicant, the letter is more likely to hurt the chance for admission because I have yet to meet an admissions officer who doesn't frown on this kind of pandering. I'm sure she will hear the same from the college side and hopefully this will provide ample ammunition to deter this family from making a mistake. If parents know someone who really has influence and wants to use it on their child's behalf, that person will know how to influence them, and it's usually over the phone. Otherwise, recommendations from well-connected people are less than helpful (and often annoying) unless the recommender has something specific and unique to say about the applicant, and then the person doesn't need to be famous or have connections to support the applicant. . If it's the usual "comes from a big family", "I know the parents well", etc., it's a waste of time. I remember receiving a letter once from a well-known author who wrote that he had never met the applicant, that he could not say anything useful but that he was writing so that he could tell the parents honestly that he had written. We laugh and appreciate the honesty, but a letter from the applicants' summer job supervisor would have been much more helpful. I used to see so many political figures write letters of recommendation for children they had never met. That told me that his parents had made a donation to his last campaign. Posts from celebrities are rubbish. They are not applying for admission, it is an unknown young man. I would much rather receive a letter from a supermarket manager who can tell me how trustworthy, honest and understanding a student can be that has worked for him. We are looking for ideas, not rhetoric. We appreciate any description of the human side. That a letter might imply that: "I don't really know this kid, but, genetics being what they are, his parents are wonderful...they don't make a sale...My friends at highly selective schools call what they're doing is a "campaign". When I worked at a fairly competitive graduate school, we would occasionally have students do what you describe. I recall several instances where it worked to their disadvantage and no instance where it helped. The same is true of most recommendations that carry weight come from teachers and others who have worked closely with a student and can therefore make significant judgments about their motivation, raw intelligence, academic skills, career potential, etc. No one cares. It matters a lot what the friend of the family politician, celebrity, or captain of industry has to say Your comment that it will do more harm than help is well taken Additional recommendations can be perceived as an attempt to distract us of the student's part of the application. 25 years ago, when I started in the profession, I was first told about the principle "the thicker the file, the thicker the child." I don't think that has changed. Many parents and children can't seem to understand that admissions people are real people and feel the same way they're being bombarded. They cannot understand that it is not about adding the number of letters. My strategy is to invite them to change things. Imagine that you are sitting at home. The dishes are ready. The children are in bed or doing their homework. Just like yesterday, you have a hundred folders to go through before the admissions committee meeting tomorrow at 8:00 am. m. Folder -todo: application, 75

76transcript and school profile, essays, activities, test scores, school recommendation, teacher recommendations, interview report, any correspondence, notes from other readers. It is now 10:30 p.m. The next file is #67: Child's Name. You open his file and in front of you is a stack of letters from people who have nothing of substance to add. Some will admit that they don't know you personally or at least very well. You are excited? Child's name will get your vote? What these parents are communicating, ultimately and not so subliminally, is: "you're not good enough to do this on your own." And you're absolutely right. These weird letters do nothing. Usually I will stop reading letters of recommendation after the second or third. Past additional letters of recommendation that rarely have much to add. The view that letters can grease the wheels of admission is one of those admission myths that are hard to kill. When I was in college, one of the boys in my dorm applied for the Wharton School's MBA program and received a letter from Prince Rainier of Monaco, a friend of his parents. He thought he could help because his wife is from Philadelphia. He didn't help. My general rule of thumb is that it's not about who signs the letter, it's about what the letter says. I know several admissions deans who keep a file of letters written by celebrities. They almost never influence a decision. Any letter beyond what is requested should be included only if it includes information not found elsewhere in the student's folder. Otherwise it is a colossal waste of time. What I am telling you is that ONE additional note from a person who has a legitimate VIP connection to the school AND knows the student well is all that is recommended. Anything else and they are in danger of looking like they are stuffing the ballot box or appearing as Lady MacBeth (they protest too much I think). They're also assuming that their child won't get in on their own merits, and they need to stop giving them that message as much as they want to see certain "yeses." FERPA and the Confidentiality of Letters of Recommendation The Federal Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), also known as the Buckley Amendment, outlines the process by which student records are stored, viewed, transmitted, and modified. Parents and adult students have the right to see and change student records. Private notes, whether by the high school counselor or by a college admissions counselor, as long as they are not passed on to others or maintained with the student's permanent record or college admissions file, are generally not open to inspection. or amendment. Students do have the right to see the admission file where they are admitted and enroll. Some college applications and/or recommendation forms have a space to sign a waiver of access to these records. This is one of the few times that a minor can sign a document that has legal significance. Once a student signs this form, the university may deny access to students who wish to see recommendations from a counselor or teacher. Although I am a strong advocate of not giving up one's rights, I encourage students to sign this waiver for two reasons. One, it gives the recommendation more credibility so that the university knows that it will not be seen by the student. Second, most colleges, once a student is admitted (rejected students do not have the ability to view their records), remove all letters of recommendation from the file. So the probability of seeing that recommendation is small anyway. 76

77A much less clear picture emerges in the disclosure of disciplinary records. State laws and school policies often prevent or limit the release of this information. It is also unclear what disciplinary information is relevant to the university admissions process. What is clear is that most universities, if they learn that a student or a high school failed to communicate about a student's disciplinary history, reserve the right to reverse an admissions decision. My general advice is that major disciplinary infractions that occur in the last two years of high school (particularly those that result in suspension or expulsion) should be reported to the colleges you wish to attend. The College Essay The college essay is one of the most intimidating parts of the college application process. Students feel that they have to write like Hemmingway, they must be able to enlighten the reader with amazing, life-altering experiences. I used to work in college admissions at Bard College, a highly selective college where two of the most popular majors were creative writing and English literature. One would expect to read applicant essays that are creative, interesting, well written, and memorable. The vast majority were none of these. Most were readable but less than interesting, clearly not memorable, and demonstrated no more than average writing ability. I had a student at Montclair High School who had outstanding credentials but was just an average writer (to be generous). He shared with me his first draft of an essay about being this upper-middle-class Jewish kid who never played competitive basketball at a camp with inner-city kids. The first draft of him was poor. It was heavy and didn't bring the story to life. I gave him some suggestions and he came back a few days later with another draft. This was marginally better. This went on for weeks, with each draft improving but not what I would describe as terribly interesting to read. One day a representative from the University of Chicago, whom I knew and respected, came to visit our high school. I showed him the final draft and his response was: It's useful. In fact, the student was admitted to and attended Harvard and since then, with William Bowen, he has recently written a seminal book on post-secondary education: Equity and Access to Higher Education. The point is that if a student has outstanding writing skills, the essay is a place to showcase these skills, and all things being equal, this is likely to help a student in the college admissions process. But the essay is only one of many parts of the college admissions process. The best essays effectively communicate how well an applicant thinks, how well they write, and who they are. However, these qualities are also communicated through other parts of the application, particularly teacher and counselor recommendations. As mentioned above, the most important thing is that the essay corroborates what is communicated in other parts of the application. If it is clear that the student is creative, then the reader would expect a creative essay. The same could be true if the student was intellectual, funny, serious, or kind. The essay should be a reflection of who the student is, not an attempt to write what one feels the admissions committee wants to hear. I often describe the essay as a window to the student. Does the topic matter? The University of Virginia did a study on this and found that the answer is no. Of the 657 applicants who had written about religious beliefs, 228 or 35% were offered admission, nearly identical to UVA's overall admission rate. Of those who discussed cloning, 347.33% were admitted. Contrary to a colleague's speculation that essays on religious beliefs or cloning were the kiss of death, the author noted, writing about these topics seemed 77

78they make no difference to the possibility of admission. Of the 126 students who wrote about Shakespeare, 31% were offered admission. Likewise, 31% of applicants who wrote about Orwell, 33% of those who wrote about Faulkner or Ayn Rand, and 35% of those who wrote about William Golding were accepted. We are more interested in form, style, and careful thought or what we sometimes call quality of thought. The data I collected seems to support this claim. Ellen, a student I had this year, was applying by early decision to one of the most select liberal arts colleges in the nation. There was a week to go before the deadline, a rainy Sunday night in October. She had just finished writing her recommendation letter, the eighth of the day, writing that it matched what I imagined a successful astronaut would have: self-confidence, intelligence, resourcefulness, and seriousness of purpose. I remembered that she asked me to read her essay just before she planned to go to bed. After reading it, I called her at her house and told her that she shouldn't use this essay. In trying to write what she felt the admissions office wanted to do here, she lost her own voice. She told me that she had been working on this trial for months, she even hired an independent counselor to help her. She asked me what she could do to improve this essay and my only thoughts were: burn it. That essay follows below: The Inside Track There have been countless times when I have had to defend the sport of track. Those who question it do not understand how it is possible that we can run around an oval and enjoy such a simple activity. They see it as a boring and simple operation and nothing more. However, those involved in the team see it in a completely different light. We see it as motivation to work hard, a place to create a goal to strive for, and a way out of stress. The track gets our hearts pounding, our adrenaline pumping and our minds racing with competitive spirit. In various ways, I feel like people see me the same way. On the surface, the track may seem like just running, but there's more to it for those who take the time to find out. Likewise, I may come across as a quiet, academic, and athletic girl, but there's certainly more to me than that, too. I'm also a girl who enjoys hot chocolate with ice cream which is really good, adds the creamy factor, cools it down and adds flavor if you like. I'm a girl who tries to speak Spanish with my friends (even if the only answer is a puzzled look), loves the satisfaction of tying a knot, hates shopping, watch Whos Line Is It Anyway?, loves hiking, especially when it's defiant, and she was a Girl Scout for several years. I love the sound of rain and thunderstorms, I enjoy working with young children and teaching them, I enjoy baking homemade chocolate chip cookies, I blink a million times when something comes to my face, I keep the house key attached to my cell phone, can't stand it when people litter. Lived in Costa Rica for a month and has twice donated a foot of hair to Locks of Love. Maybe I'm quiet, academic, and athletic, but what really means the most to me is when a friend confides in me about their problems, thoughts, and feelings. Sitting in front of my house in my friend's car, letting her pour out her concerns and her innermost dilemmas, I feel good to be there. Knowing that I helped someone in a difficult time and gave them a reason to smile is what I enjoy the most. When a person trusts me, I feel that I have importance in his life. In a way, I also learn from it, as its story becomes a part of my life. 78

79While it's nice to be described as a girl with fast legs and good grades, it's more important to me that someone goes below the surface and sees that there's so much more to me. I think it's a real honor when someone thinks of me as a kind and considerate person who is always there for her friends. She told me that she had written a new essay and asked me to read it. I read it and was relieved that she had produced a perfectly useful essay, one that probably wouldn't hurt her chances of admission to her early-decision college. He was genuine but a little distant. This second essay is below: Do you realize what this means? You're a freshman, college, sprinter, at Montclair High School, and you're white! How amazing! When a member of the senior team told me this, my first year, it made me realize a lot. Mainly, I realized that I was in a privileged situation that not many people are lucky enough to be in. My high school is unique with 52% minority students, and on the track team, as a Caucasian sprinter, I become a minority on a mostly black running team. At the track, race-related comments like the one above were always light-hearted. Race never really mattered, and no one took offense. Track performance was all that was valued because timekeeping is not racist and track is about speed and working towards a common athletic goal. For the winter and spring seasons of my junior and senior year, I was named the women's track captain. As a team leader, an important part of my job is to motivate others and establish respect. With that, the way we treat ourselves on a day-to-day basis is important. Team unity is imperative, and that unity must extend across any racial lines. Unfortunately, this diverse environment does not exist everywhere. Not enough people are immersed in situations where diversity is present. Although American society as a whole is very diverse, communities and individuals are not always willing to step out of their comfort zone to create diversity and change. The composition of my track team provides an excellent learning environment. By participating in the track, I can take away a new level of comfort and a deeper understanding of others. This perspective has carried over to my family as well helping them to accept all my friends and most importantly my African American boyfriend. Over the last year and a half, our relationship has taught me that embracing our different cultures really enriches our lives. Because we were both track captains last year, it was always important to us to set an example for our teams; and that meant always standing up for what's right and understanding the importance or otherwise of skin color. The composition of the team has allowed me to develop close friendships within a new circle. Our laughter, teamwork, and common goals have transcended any racial, socioeconomic, and religious differences. This experience has helped me accept and cooperate well with others, which I hope translates into future situations. It's easy to miss out on the potential to expand one's mind and culture by not understanding how our differences can help us grow. On the other hand, in practice on the track a good learning experience for both sides is evident and everyone can transfer the skills learned on the track. 79

80I have learned not to judge people, to give everyone a fair chance, and to always look beyond the skin. The only career that should matter is the one that involves running. The day before the deadline, Ellen asked me to read a short essay that was required for this particular university. She said that she only wrote a draft and it took her less than an hour to write it. This was, in my opinion, the best essay of hers. The example of her mother cutting off the hands of the cowboy figurines was beautiful. I could imagine the horrified looks on the children's faces as they opened their gift bags. The essay flowed naturally, giving me an insight into something that was really important and meaningful to Ellen, and in doing so, giving me an insight into who she was. This third essay continues: Living Under a Rock: No Survival Guide Required. When my brother was four years old and wanted to have a Wild West Cowboy birthday party, my parents happily agreed. They even bought little plastic cowboy figurines to give out as favors. However, the figurines were missing something: my mom had meticulously cut out all the weapons that the little cowboys were holding. Growing up, I never watched Power Rangers, I wasn't allowed to watch Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, and when I did watch TV, I was basically restricted to Channel Thirteen, the educational PBS, Public Television Network. My house was free of GI Joes and I have never seen a Playstation 2 video game system. Some might consider it a protected environment, while others would see it as a protective one. My parents were very sure of their beliefs regarding what children should be introduced to in infancy. While other kids may have been talking about the ultimate number of people they had killed to get ahead in a Duke Nukem level, I was content watching Mister Rogers Neighborhood and using my imagination to create my own peaceful game. Now that I'm older and can critically look back on how I was raised, I think my parents did a good job. While I wasn't blind to the times, I was exposed to what I needed to see, as my parents guided my childhood to focus on the more positive and beneficial aspects of life. I believe that much of my current good morals were developed by my parents' conscious effort to emphasize good values ​​and a nonviolent mindset. Today, I realize that I am against violence and war and I try to be nice to everyone. I am also especially aware of how others feel and how my actions affect them. On my high school soccer team, I am even affectionately known as the team mom due to my caring nature and tendency to always look out for others. Some close friends have made fun of me, saying that I lived under a rock, but I don't see that to be true. I am fully aware of what is happening in the world today, and I have never been shielded from reality. Just because my parents cut out unnecessary violence from my childhood, I don't see it as a loss on my part. I grew up accepting the fact that hostility and hate are not necessary, and as a result, I believe I have grown into the person I am today. Although my knowledge of pop culture can be scant at times - I even had to ask a friend for the name of a video game to use in this essay - I wouldn't change the way I was raised even if I could. While some people may believe that I missed things growing up, I disagree. There is enough violence inundating us on a daily basis to make up for anything I missed as a child. I feel like I was lucky to get a break from the cruelty and cynicism that surrounds us while I still could, and I thank my parents and their strong values ​​for that. Below are a number of essay recommendations I've collected from colleagues: 80

81College Essay Tips Use your own voice, but don't try too hard to be funny and don't write about the first time you got drunk. Make sure the essay is about you and tells admissions people things they could never learn by looking at your transcript or test scores. Do not allow others to participate in the writing process (other than proofreading). It will be obvious if the applicant does not write the essay. To the extent possible (perhaps limited/dictated by prescribed topics), the student should write about something/someone that interests them. several times to edit and finalize the essay (don't even THINK about waiting until the night before the deadline!) Take the time to carefully edit the college names in each version, if applicable (ie "... that's why I want to attend XXX University...") I think the two most important pieces of information about essays are: -writing about something very significant in one's life; don't write [about] a topic that "sounds impressive" - ​​write in a style that also reflects who you are; don't try to write in a style that isn't comfortable and doesn't talk about a personal side. Don't write about your summer trip to a foreign country or any other event that you know five of your friends could write about. Your essay is really the only part of your application that you have full control over. Make it the best thing you've ever written. The strength (or weakness) of your essay sets the tone for how the rest of your application is read. If your essay is weak, everything else in the file will seem lacking in dynamism, but if your essay is awesome, it can make the weaker parts of your application look a little better. Make sure that the essay can only be written by you. You must present a personal perspective that allows colleges to see a side of you that is not reflected elsewhere on your application. The opening sentence should "catch" the reader. Universities read so many essays that an imaginative opening will catch their attention. Often my students write about very personal topics that they would not feel comfortable sharing with the larger community. For example, one student wrote about her relationship with her disabled twin and included feelings that were ambivalent, to say the least. The younger students could have easily misunderstood it. I always ask my superiors for permission before sharing a personal essay. When writing about an experience, topic, or person important to you, be sure to focus on the "why"; we do not want a travelogue of your trip to France, or a description of what an oboe solo comprises, etc. we want to know about your reactions to the person's experience or influence. If you're not known for your humor, don't use your college essay as your first attempt at being funny. The content must be personal and you must say it with passion! 81

82When I worked at Wesleyan, I was impressed with essays that were engaging, intellectually discussed a topic, and depending on the application, discussed the strengths and weaknesses of your applications. In general, most of the essays are good and some are bad (the ones that try to be too creative or too clever and fail) and some are excellent. A great essay only helps a mediocre application if it: 1. Puts the student's accomplishments, background, and weaknesses in context 2. Maturely discusses their wishes 3. Allows the reader to gain new information about the candidate who doesn't appear in anywhere else in the app. There is no suitable topic to write about. On the other hand, there are wrong approaches. Getting the quarterback to talk about his passion for winning the game is cliché. I would be more impressed if you talked about his academic passion. Having a student write about a death in the family is acceptable, but if that student uses you as a scapegoat for a poor academic record, that doesn't show maturity. Finally, those essays that revealed an intellectual epiphany are rare but impressive. Very few students have them in high school, and for those who find their intellectual passion while in class, doing a science project or writing a play, and somehow tie it to their college goals, they will impress any counselor. sensible admissions Ultimately, be yourself. I want to hear the unique voice of a student. "I always tell students that it's what you learn after you know it that counts." ~ Harry S Truman ~ While college admissions officers may claim that the quality of the application essay carries x amount of weight in the decision, I believe an excellent essay convinces readers to fight on the admitting committee an applicant and a poor essay kills support for a promising applicant. Although in my experience giving general essay writing advice has less impact than discussing with people my reactions to their drafts, two concepts seem worth considering: 1. No topic is inherently a good or bad choice for an essay. therefore, a student given the choice of a topic must put aside what he thinks an admissions committee wants to hear and write to the best of his ability about something he knows well and cares about. 2. Good writing is light, progressive, imaginative, based on detail, energized by appropriate verbs, and respectful of the reader's intelligence; for example, telling a story in a way that reveals rather than affirms that the writer has learned or matured. due to some situation or circumstance. I give my students this list of do's and don'ts: Do: go for depth instead of breadth, answer the question, write about something that interests you, use the essay (to explain a problem, illustrate a interest, etc.), be sincere, be interesting, correct 82

83Don't: Write a glorified list or travel journal, or blame others for your situation (my history teacher didn't like me) I'm a high school counselor, but an admissions counselor said this: When you have a idea for an essay, it is as if you are looking through a camera with a wide angle lens. Now you need to put on the zoom lens and focus on just one part of your idea. Example- Don't talk about your day at the fair. Talk about that roller coaster ride or that sticky cotton candy that was coating your fingers and tongue! The idea, of course, is to get children to focus on a specific idea, not a generality. I would tell them to be themselves. If they're not humorous, don't write a humorous essay. Clear, concise, insightful. Share something about yourself that you feel is a special part of who you are and what you would like to accomplish in college, in your career, in your community, and/or in your life. Too often, college students get caught up in what they perceive to be the essay game. My simple advice... Be yourself. Say what you want to say...not what you think the admissions officers want to hear. Be honest about who you are and what you think when writing your essay. Remember that schools are trying to make sure you will be a WELL fit at their institution. Believe it or not, we want you to succeed and that is why there is an admission review. We don't want to set anyone up for failure. 1. Admit it 2. Keep it brief 3. Make a point well 4. Don't use a thesaurus 5. Like it I urge you to stay away from the "being unique" trap. Instead, it is important for students to be themselves. Many get too hung up on tricks and forget that they will write better and impress more when they write about something that interests them, regardless of the topic. Some other quick tips that I'm sure you've already covered: Show the essay to someone, preferably an English teacher, to catch any minor syntax errors that you miss because you know what you meant. For example, hopefully a fresh set of eyes will see that you typed "demon" when you should have typed "friend." You'll be able to change those mistakes, but if the reader starts offering all sorts of unsolicited advice about what he or she thinks we want to hear, thank him or her politely and don't change anything if he or she doesn't want to. The essay should be a reflection of you, and the most boring (and unhelpful) essays for admissions committee members to read are the ones where students simply say what they think we want to hear. The rest of your application tells an admissions committee some things about you based on other people's interpretations (grades, test scores, recommendations). Whether directly or indirectly, the essay is a way for YOU to tell the committee about yourself. Be yourself, write your own essay, use your own voice, and have a little fun. It is not a book report. Remember, someone will read yours, along with 80 - 100 THAT day and the same for the next 12 weeks. 83

84The essay can take almost any format (autobiographical, thematic fiction, etc.), but it must communicate three things: how well you think, how well you write, and who you are. You should limit your topic as much as possible. If you are writing an autobiographical essay, you may want to consider writing about a moment in time. Illustrate rather than describe your feelings and experiences. Write one good essay instead of several weak ones, if possible. Rewrite and edit as many times as necessary to produce a solid piece. Read other students' essays and use the skills developed by critiquing others' essays to judge your own. It may be more useful to read weak essays than good ones. Have others read and correct your essays. Write it. It is very difficult to write good essays on the three D's: Death, Divorce and Disaster. If you choose one of these topics, remember to focus less on the events that occurred than on how they affected you. Another extremely common theme is the experience of traveling abroad. Avoid writing about anything money can buy. If you feel comfortable, don't be afraid to use humor or be bold. But don't feel compelled to do either if it doesn't come naturally to you. Use the topic of the essay as a metaphor. Do not dwell on specific experiences but on your perception and reaction to those experiences. An essay should not be used to describe what you have done, but to communicate who you are. Some interview tips compiled by Cigus Vanni of Cherry Hill High School West in NJ: Few aspects of the admissions process evoke the confusion, angst, and misunderstandings generated by THE COLLEGE INTERVIEW. To understand what a college interview really means, reflect on the following points: Recognize that the college interview is NEVER the most important or critical feature of the college admissions process. Academic performance, standardized test scores, meaningful participation in activities, teacher and counselor recommendations all pass the interview in admissions consideration. No amount of personal appeal or polished selling will transform a shy, average student into an attractive admissions candidate at a selective college. Appreciate the fact that no one is a greater expert on you than yourself (yes, YOU). You can articulate what's important about you better than anyone. You are the one who best knows your story, your achievements and your dreams. Regardless of the level of education an interviewer has attained or the level of prestige of the university you represent, you know yourself the most. Get comfortable being yourself Dissolve the idea that you have to perform in an interview. Sincerity and serious commitment are desirable in your exchange with your interviewer. There is no personality type or lifestyle synonymous with a successful interview and 84

85Also, give your interviewer credit for being able to tell if you're being a fake. You won't get extra points for being too outgoing, and you won't be penalized if your personality is more quiet and subdued. Prepare to answer the following questions: Who are you? What are your achievements, activities and people most important to you? What and who made you the person you are today? What interests you? What are your passions? Where are you going? What are your goals? What are your dreams? How do you see yourself evolving in the next five/ten years? What do you represent when you visualize your life as a professional? What course of study will you follow? What mayor? Why this school? What is it about the confluence of your goals, your interests, your talents, and your personal style that leads you to consider this college? What do you know about this college that tells you it would be a good fit for you? How will this university help you achieve your goals? Make sure you know enough about the university to ask meaningful questions. Do your homework! To be prepared! Don't ask about factual data that could easily be found with a cursory glance in some college textbook. Remember that an interview is a two-way means of communication, and seize the opportunity that presents itself, which doesn't mean trying to develop questions so arcane that you'll baffle your interviewer (How many Olympic synchronized swimming medalists has ____ produced?). Assure him/her that he/she knows that you have carefully and carefully considered your college options and that your presence at this interview means that you have already decided that you could be happy at this school. Please dress appropriately and comfortably. There is no merit in taking extreme positions in fashion. Both glamor and sloppiness are to be avoided, no need to rent a tuxedo or attract attention by wearing undergarments. Women shouldn't feel obligated to wear skirts when pants would be fine (men, of course, should feel welcome to wear skirts to an interview at any time). However, female candidates, if wearing a skirt is an everyday event for you and you're comfortable with it, then go ahead. Can you wear shorts? Sure, as long as they're decent and you wear a collared shirt (like a polo) with them. Try to avoid wearing your school colors to impress your interviewer, which would be filed as trying too hard. Feel free to bring a short resume and diligently attend to any information you are asked to fill out. The interview is not the appropriate setting for submitting an application or reading a large file. Many colleges and universities ask you to fill out a one page information sheet which you should do carefully even if you have brought a resume (visual cues from interviewers are 85

86used for the school sheet itself). That's perfectly fine, but you don't need to bring an unofficial copy of your high school transcript for your interviewer. Remember your manners. Introduce your father and mother to your interviewer. Pretend that you really like your little brother and introduce him too. Be on the lookout for the receptionist in the admissions office. And be sure to get the interviewer's business card so you can send them a thank you note once you get home. This is not only an act of courtesy, but it gives them one more reminder of who you are. Extracurricular Activity Most apps have a space to list what you do outside of class. There are some standing principles when communicating this information: Make sure the reader can easily understand the nature of what you may be involved with. Acronyms (TEAM, SPARK, etc.) are not helpful nor are organizations whose name does not accurately describe what the organization does (Kids for Kids, for example) Universities want to know about activities that have long and broad involvement and those that involve and excite you. Students must list them first and describe their degree of participation. There is no checklist of activities that are mandatory for each application. No need to make sure you play a sport, play a musical instrument, do community service, and belong to a world language club. Creating or joining clubs or activities just to put up a college resume is transparent. Students should do what they really like and what they are passionate about. Being president of the Latin Club can mean leading two out of three meetings a year or it could mean intense leadership in Latino competitions and programs. Make sure the university is aware of the difference. One-off activities, like volunteering with the Special Olympics or participating in a walk or run to raise money, carry much less weight than long-term commitments, like weekly tutoring. Long-term employment, athletics, or volunteer work says a lot about students' ability to commit and deliver—traits that are attractive to colleges. Artistic students must demonstrate their talents through photographs of works of art, videos of dance or theatrical performances, best examples, or poetry or prose. For students seeking a Bachelor of Fine Arts, these requirements are detailed in the admissions material. In BA programs, the admissions office will frequently send these items to the art department for evaluation. Athletes fall into two categories: those who plan to play in college and have the ability to do so, and those who don't. For those planning to play in college, see the chapter on college athletics. For others, it remains a demonstration of dedication and perseverance. 86

87Don't be afraid to attach a resume if necessary, but be sure to complete the activities section of the application. Being a well-rounded student is not a huge advantage for most universities; it is an expectation. The most preferable situation is one in which a student is complete but also has one or two strong and intense passions. It's always a plus to have experience in an established career goal, doing things like scientific research, volunteering at a hospital, interning at an accounting firm, or volunteering with school-age children. Any achievement, from playing bridge or chess to competing in horse shows or baking, is more impressive if the student is recognized. The greater the recognition, local, state, national, international, the more impressive. Extracurricular activities should substantiate strengths, talents, and interests seen in other parts of the application. If a student's writing is highly praised by teachers and counselors and the student says they want to major in creative writing in college, it's better to be able to show writing done outside of classroom assignments. It's obvious when activities are done to make one look like a better college candidate. That student living in a Native American reservation building the summer before senior year won't do much to impress a college admissions officer. If that same student was a camp counselor for the past two summers and really enjoyed it, it would be more impressive if that student was still a camp counselor. Students should do what they enjoy, are talented at, and have had a long-term commitment. This does NOT mean that parents should start pushing for kids to find that passion in seventh grade and shaping every aspect to make sure it looks impressive. It means that parents need to nurture and support what a child really enjoys or wants to try. Students with Physical and Learning Disabilities and College Admissions There is one important thing for students with learning disabilities to keep in mind when looking for post-secondary options: the protections, accommodations, and services required by high schools will not necessarily be available after graduation. high school. Students in the public school system in the United States are protected by IDEIA, the Individuals with Disabilities in Education Act which requires that all children receive a Free Appropriate Public Education (FAPE). No matter how expensive or extensive, children have the right to have their educational needs met in the least restrictive environment possible. Students in public school, if necessary, can have one-on-one assistants, be sent out of district to extremely expensive specialized schools, or have their school build special facilities to meet their needs. Students with disabilities may be protected through two different laws: IDEIA and Section 504 of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). IDEIA generally covers students with chronic and relatively to extremely severe disabilities. ADA covers students with impairments in one or more life functions. The main difference between these two levels of protection is that IDEIA provides services and accommodations, while Section 504 provides accommodations only. Students under IDEIA have an Individualized Educational Plan prepared annually by the Child Study Team. The needs of the student identified by the IEP must be met, 87

88no matter the cost or inconvenience. Schools often have various special education programs and staff specifically to meet the needs of IDEIA classified students: classroom support, resource room, inclusion, etc. Most students at IDEIA have some educational modification to meet their needs. Students protected by a 504 plan generally do not have educational accommodations, that is, their schedule is the same as it would be without a 504 plan but they are allowed to have accommodations to meet their needs within the classroom. A student with Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) may be given extra time for tests or a seat at the front of the classroom; a student with severe asthma may be excused from the school attendance policy. One major difference between IDEIA and 504 is cost and finances: IDEIA requires the school to provide services regardless of cost. Section 504 only allows modifications, not expensive services. IDEIA ends in high school. There are universities that provide services for students with learning disabilities, but parents usually pay those costs. Colleges are not required to meet the needs of all students who apply, they are only required to provide reasonable accommodations to students they knowingly admit with learning or other disabilities. The key here is knowing. If a student self-discloses a disability in the preadmission process and the university admits that student, the university must honor the student's reasonable accommodations. Reasonable, in this case, means accommodations that will not alter the educational mission of the institution. It is up to the student to self-disclose a disability. Students must understand that disclosing a disability may cause them to be denied admission to the university. This may sound like discrimination, but under the law, colleges are not required to admit students whose needs they cannot meet, particularly if the costs of meeting those needs would create an undue hardship on the college or the services provided that the student would not could satisfy. Be consistent with the mission of the school. A university may require a foreign language for graduation and feel that it was an essential part of their educational mission. If a student documented before being admitted that she had a disability that prevented her from completing a foreign language, that student may be denied. The courts upheld a university's decision to deny a hearing-impaired student. The university successfully argued that the cost of installing both visual and audible fire alarms in every building on campus (they only had audible alarms) would be prohibitively expensive and would take significant funding away from the educational needs of the other students on campus. If a student self-discloses a disability and is admitted, the university must provide reasonable accommodations to that student. But the university may charge parents extra for any additional services that are required. If they do not disclose themselves, the university can still provide them with housing and services, but the university is not required to do so. This outlines the legal aspects of college admission for students with disabilities, but the process can be much more complex than understanding these issues. Perhaps the hardest thing to determine is the difference between what universities say they provide and what they actually provide. Some colleges that advertise services for students with learning disabilities provide them reluctantly, at great inconvenience, or at high additional cost, and some colleges that do not advertise services for students with LD actually provided all services and accommodations voluntarily on a free basis. informal. A recent article in the New York Times indicated that a well-known university was now requiring students to take new tests and provide new documentation annually to the university in order to continue receiving accommodations. this is an 88

89This very expensive and onerous requirement gave many students with learning disabilities the impression that accommodations were being provided grudgingly. The K and W Guide to Colleges for Students with Learning Disabilities by Mary Beth Kravets and Imy Wax is perhaps the best informative guide on the subject. It tells students if colleges are disability-friendly, if they have special staff dedicated to providing support services for students with learning disabilities, and what documentation they may need to provide in the pre-admission process. Some universities, he explains, admit students through the regular admissions office, while others have special staff that do all admissions for LD students. Nothing compares to visiting a university, meeting with faculty, LD staff, admissions officers, and students. See the facilities and ask about the specific services provided to students. Talk to teachers and ask if they are willing to accommodate the needs of students with AD. Ask to meet with students currently receiving services at the university. Ask them how difficult or fair the admissions process was, what services are actually provided and how easy it is to get them, if teachers are willing to accommodate needs, if tutoring is provided and at what cost, etc. Services provided that students feel are inconsistent, often unavailable, extremely expensive, or provided begrudgingly are sometimes worse than no service at all. A major problem for students who have disabilities is receiving accommodations for standardized tests (ACT or SAT). These accommodations can include anything from a reader, word processor, or large block test materials. Due to more frequent accommodation, the time for the test is extended. This is perceived by many parents as an advantage in college admissions and some have attempted to obtain additional time for students who do not perform well and who may not have a documented disability. I cannot count the number of times I have received private test results with the conclusion that the student has a particular disability that requires more time than the test results do not support at all. When one looks at cognitive and performance tests, one looks for dispersion between subtests, that is, signs that learning that requires a certain modality, listening, spatial organization, memorization, etc., is affected while others No. I frequently received reports documenting a hearing impairment, while tests that required listening skills showed no different results than those that did not. A student whose subtest scores are all low does not have a disability, just low ability. The growth of this cottage industry of psychologists, psychiatrists, and learning disability experts to help students receive more time on tests has muddied the waters about who needs more services and, in my opinion, has hurt the students who need more. they need adaptations. The College Board, which runs the SAT program, decided not to mark (designate) test scores that were achieved with more time. They decided to increase the documentation required to receive extended-time tests, closely matching the requirements already set by the ACT. Sometimes this resulted in students being denied accommodations, while at other times, counselors report, it provided an additional and onerous hurdle. I had a student who had cerebral palsy. The College Board kept denying my requests for additional time, submitting forms over and over again requesting additional information, often with just a box checked saying more documentation was required without explanation. I finally got through to someone from Disability Services who said he had to provide the results of the physical limitations tests. I told him that the physical limitations were quite evident since 89

90disease and that no such test was done since the student was two years old. I finally contacted the Director of Disability Services, who agreed that the requested documentation was ridiculous and modified what the family was required to provide. Not all students with disabilities have parents or counselors willing to be as tenacious as we needed to be to accommodate these disabilities. The main point here is that students with disabilities and their parents should be actively involved in the college search process. They should consider early in the process what services and accommodations are absolutely necessary, decide whether it is best to disclose a disability in the process, and investigate which schools will be best able to meet students' needs. It is essential to begin the process of requesting additional time at least six months before the student's first PSAT or PACT. Each course of action often has some degree of risk associated with it, and it is essential to be aware of those risks and be prepared to accept them should they arise. Ellen Dietrich, Woodlynde School's Director of College Counseling, provided some of the following information: There are three types of college support programs: Structured, Coordinated, and Core Services Programs. Structured programs are comprehensive in nature and provide students with a significant amount of support. Students are often required to participate in specific components of the program. Schools may charge a fee to participate in the program. Some may also require a separate admission process. Services may include: Staff trained in learning disabilities Special guidance programs Curriculum modifications Advocacy assistance Academic monitoring and counseling Some examples of colleges with structured programs include Curry College, American University, University of Arizona, Fairleigh Dickinson University, Hofstra University, Muskingum College, Marist College, Davis and Elkins College, University of Vermont, and Barry University. In some cases, admission to the program for people with learning disabilities may override the university's denial. Coordinated programs provide students with moderate levels of support. Such programs often have a learning disability specialist (at least part-time) who helps students coordinate academic adjustments. Services may include learning strategies Instruction Counseling Tutoring Assistance with advocacy 90

91Some universities with coordinated services include Albright College, University of Delaware, Regis University, Northwestern University, Washington University in St. Louis, Widener University, Brown University, and Georgetown University. Basic Services programs provide the minimum amount of support necessary to comply with the law. All colleges that receive federal funds (even when they accept student loan payments) must provide basic services. Structured programs work best for students who need close monitoring and high levels of support. Coordinated programs work best for students who want to integrate but know they will need support. Basic services programs work best for highly motivated and independent students. Some services available to students may include: Adaptive Technology Lab Extra time on tests and quizzes Tests administered in a distraction-free classroom Alternative test formats (such as oral exams) Early registration and reduced course loads Readers Books on tape and expanded booklets Using a tape recorder to record lectures Talking calculators Spell checkers Note-taking services Advocacy seminars Support group for people with learning disabilities College guidance checklist for students with special needs20 Admissions Admissions criteria for students with special needs Are they the same as for other students? Are special evaluations required? Are diagnostic tests available? 20 College Counseling Sourcebook, 2nd Edition, 2005 The College Board 91

92Is there a summer orientation dedicated to students with special needs? Is documentation required to demonstrate special needs? Academic Supports Is the process for accessing special needs clear and easy to follow? Is there a fee for supports? Is there tutoring available? Is remediation available in basic skills? Are there study skills courses available? Auxiliary Aids: Does the school provide: calculators?, laptops, desktop personal computers, scanning and reading programs, screen magnification programs, screen readers, voice recognition programs, spelling/grammar assistants. Ancillary Services: Does the school provide: Advocates, alternative testing organization, low cost duplication, mentors, note takers, priority registration, readers, scribes? Student Support: Does the school provide: Career advising, career placement, internship programs, individual advising, small group advising, student organizations for students with special needs? Track & Field and College Admissions There is perhaps nothing that can have a greater effect on college admissions than having the ability to play track in college. Michelle Hernandez, In A is for Admissions, unraveled the connection between athletics and admissions by giving the Academic Index formula, a formula used by the Ivy League to determine minimum academic expectations for athletes. Ivy League students must have a minimum AI in order for the admissions office to consider an athlete for admission. What many find surprising is that students who are recruited athletes are not only marginally weaker statistically, but significantly weaker. 21 Some Ivy League colleges require teams to have a team IA in addition to an individual cap, so admitting a student with a low IA requires admitting a student with a higher IA. For soccer, teams are given admission slots in AI bands (for example, 10 students from 171 to 180, 10 from 181 to 190, etc.). Colleges in the New England Small College Athletic Conference (many called the Little Ivies) accept a limited number of athletic slots at admissions. 21See Appendix XX for more information on the Academic Index. Additionally, the NCAA has minimum standards for playing Division I or II athletics (See Appendix X) 92

93In two seminal books on athletics and college admissions, The Game of Life and The Name of the Game, William T. Bowen studied the effects of athletics on college admissions and came to the following conclusions: At selective liberal arts colleges, one-third of the men and one-fifth of the women were recruited athletes. In the Ivies, a quarter of the men and 15 percent of the women were conscripts. At the New England Little Athletic Conference, 43 percent of male students and 32 percent of female students were athletes. 24% men and 17% women were recruited, percentages much higher than those of the scholarship schools. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of women recruited for athletics in the last 20 years Recruited athletes had a substantial advantage in admissions, much greater than other target groups (legacy, underrepresented minorities, etc.) Recruited athletes in these schools are 48 percent more likely to be admitted. Minority and legacy students range from 18 to 24 percent. This advantage is much greater now than it was in 1989, which was much greater than it was in 1976, the years of these studies. This is more pronounced in the Ivy League, where students were 4 times more likely to be admitted. The athletes had much lower SAT scores than their classmates, most pronounced in football, basketball and hockey, with average scores more than 100 points lower than the overall student body. Athlete recruitment did not have a marked effect on the socioeconomic composition or racial diversity of schools. Despite lower SATs, the graduation rate for athletes from highly selective schools was high and comparable to that of non-athletes. College grades and class rank were low for athletes and have deteriorated over time. In 1989, only 16% finished in the top third and 58% in the bottom third. In the Ivy League, 81% of the athletes recruited were in the bottom third of the class. This is not related to the time demands of the sport. Other groups with high time commitments (such as musicians) do not demonstrate this low performance. Nor legacies. Underrepresented minorities have shown a steady increase in performance over the years, while athletes' performance has declined. 93

94Male athletes were more likely to enter the social sciences and not earn an advanced degree. They are more likely to go into business and finance and are less likely to become scientists, engineers, academics, lawyers, or doctors. Male athletes consistently made more money than their classmates! Female athletes in 1976 were more likely than their female classmates to be doctors and lawyers and enjoyed a considerable earnings advantage over their female classmates. In 1989, they were no more likely to earn advanced degrees and did not enjoy any earnings advantage. Conclusions: Athletics plays an important role in admissions at all colleges, but has the greatest effect at the most selective colleges. In addition, athletes significantly affect the social and academic life of these institutions. Some important things for athletes to keep in mind: You should hope for the best but plan for the worst. At its best, athletics can open many doors that would not be open to non-athletes and even, on rare occasions, lead to an athletic scholarship. However, there are two big pitfalls to consider. One is that, despite the coach's constant encouragement, an offer of admission never comes through. Coaches often recruit far more students than they can get through admissions, assuming many recruits will choose to attend elsewhere. You won't stop recruiting student-athletes until the coach has a definitive answer on who will apply, who will attend if admitted, and who will be admitted. There are a number of things that impact coach recruiting practices: what is the number of spots the admissions office will allocate for the team? What are the minimum qualifications for athletes? What openings does the coach have? I advise all student athletes to visit the team website and look at the composition and performance of the team from previous years. How many seniors are graduating from your position or event? How many freshmen play (or run, swim, etc.) where you do? Coaches only need 126-pound wrestlers, quarterbacks, defensive linemen or goaltenders. Some coaches will take risks on admissions, hoping they can get a free pass by failing to identify a student as an admissions recruit, believing that the student will gain admissions without the help of coaches. The loser here can often be the student athlete who would have been a safe bet with the help of the coaches and who ends up not being admitted at all. High school athletes also often misread a coach's level of interest. If a student writes to a coach and receives a letter of interest from the coach in return, this is not a sign that the student is being recruited. This is usually just a courtesy. As a college coach told me, being drafted means at least two contacts from the coach. Just like dating, it's pretty easy to determine the interest level of the coaches. If the coach doesn't contact you, he has no interest in you. And if the coach called and wrote regularly and suddenly stopped contacting you, it usually means that he has gotten the athletes he needs and is no longer interested in you. 94

95You have to realize that except at the highest levels, where coaches know almost all of the top recruits, few coaches are familiar with the student-athletes who are interested in playing for them. One mother told me that she visited a lower level college lacrosse coach and saw a huge box in her office full of never seen VCR tapes and DVDs. It wasn't until she and her son got on the coach's radar that he saw the video of her and started recruiting him. He was eventually admitted and played on the varsity team at that university. The point here is that most coaches do not have the ability to properly research every athlete who shows an interest and the student needs to make sure they get to know and acknowledge each other. It is particularly difficult to advise student athletes on course scheduling issues. For non-athletes looking for competitive colleges, it is essential to do very well on a very demanding schedule to be considered for admission. Reducing junior or senior schedule demands may be the first thing selective colleges use to deny students. However, for athletes, it is more important to have good grades than an overly demanding schedule. I coached an All-American wrestler who took physics and calculus with honors his senior year and did poorly in them. Some Ivy League colleges and highly competitive universities told him that the Ds he earned in these courses prevented him from being admitted and that he should consider a year of graduate school. They told him that if he had gotten Bs on a less demanding schedule, he would have been recruited and admitted. However, there is a risk that athletes will reduce the demands of their schedule. If the student is injured or not recruited, he will be in a worse position in admissions and may be denied by several colleges that would otherwise have considered him. The impact of an injury in the future can never be underestimated. An All American lacrosse player at my school was clearly a Division I scholarship athlete until, boom, he needed reconstructive knee surgery just before his senior year. He hadn't researched or considered schools other than the ones that were recruiting him. I advised his family that there might be Division III colleges that would be willing to take a chance on him, but that Division I schools, at least the ones he was considering, were out. Athletes need to consider all possibilities and alternatives when going through the recruitment process. There's one thing many high school students don't realize, but many college athletes learn the hard way: a great recruiter is not a great coach. In fact, in my experience, the exact opposite is true. Some coaches seem to take a great interest in all aspects of student-athlete lives. They call and email regularly, showing great interest in how the prospect is doing athletically and academically. However, once the student starts playing sports, the coach seems to lose interest in the well-being of the students. He begins to pressure the athlete to play injured and sacrifice everything for the team. There's one obvious step that many would-be athletes never do: ask current team members what it's like to play on the team and play for this coach. It's fun? Does the coach care about them? Does the coach play athletes with injuries? Athletic Time Line Fall -- Junior Year Maintain your grades; this is important during the junior year Step up your conditioning in the off-season 95

96Select your destination universities; start with around 20 at this point o College parameters are variable and non-variable variables include size of student population, geographic location, costs, non-variable majors include SAT scores, GPA, playing ability (your coaches they can define this), the athlete's size and strength o If you have no idea where to start, pick one or two colleges and if it fits your academic profile, check their website to see who they play against; their competitors may have similar profiles that you also fit Cross-reference your target 20 colleges with the list of D1, D2, and D3 lax schools to see how many schools in your original 20 have teams with your sport Play multiple sports; college coaches feel multi-sport athletes show athleticism and commitment to athletics Winter -- junior year In January, begin planning to order game tapes (in sports where applicable) which can be expensive or colleges typically want full game tapes (where applicable) ; often coaches will only consider you for the team if they can see your complete game (attack, defense, degree of hustle, reaction after making a mistake); the coaches are looking for a well-rounded player who pushes himself at all times, doesn't play out of control, and has good sportsmanship and teamwork. You can also consider having your own; professional tapes can be expensive; To cut costs, consider sharing the cost with a teammate; also check to see if you can hire a TV production student or competent layman to film the games or some coaches who have seen you play the previous season or at summer camp may not need a tape Talk to the coaches about a good recruiting camps to attend; Maintain your grades Start narrowing your list of target colleges to 10 schools or try to visit as many colleges as possible to see which ones you feel most comfortable with or talk seriously with parents about any financial constraints (private or state), college costs, etc. .); Many sports scholarships are not necessarily as large or available as scholarships for other sports, eg soccer or check the composition of current teams; How many seniors are on the team and will they leave? Spring -- Junior Year Maintain Your Grades Send letters of interest to coaches. Includes vital information. For sports like swimming and track and field, this is mostly statistical information, like the events you competed in and your personal bests in those events. In team sports, this should include position played, awards or honors, varsity playing time, etc. For certain sports, like soccer, the coach will want to know our speed and size. 96

97You may want a separate athletic resume with the above information sent to you along with your letter of interest. Be sure to provide information on how to contact your current coach, including phone numbers (ask your coach for the best way for a college coach to contact him), email address, and mailing address. Have 10-15 copies of game tapes (where applicable); be sure to label them on the outside with your name, number, and jersey color Junior End of Year Apply online for the NCAA clearinghouse at ncaaclearinghouse.com; the fee is currently $35; you cannot normally go on visits until cleared by the NCAA if you are trying to be recruited as an athlete; they tend to be slow and you usually can't play D1 in college without this clearance. Email the coaches on your school list before going to any summer camp; tell them which camp you will be attending and that you hope to have the chance to meet them there Narrow your list down to 2-3 colleges you want your coach to help you communicate with; talk to him about your chances of getting in and whether colleges are right for you After July 1, colleges can talk to you directly and try to recruit you; It's nice to get letters of interest, but unless they call you, you're not a major recruit to them; Highly competitive Division 1 (D1) and D3 schools tend to call up their best recruits on July 1; other D3 programs send letters or call recruits, but can wait until the dust settles on D1 recruiting Start sending copies of your game tapes to your top 10+ choices; after you send in the tapes, send in an unofficial transcript of your grades (get it from the guidance office) and your SAT scores Plan to spend a weekend at each school you're genuinely interested in, whether or not you're invited a coach (check the social scene, academic support, and other factors important to you) Fall -- Senior Year Before requesting early decision: o ask your coach to speak with the prospective college coach o ask your guidance counselor to check with the college's admissions office and make sure the admissions office's story matches the college's coach's story or understand that while applying for early decision allows you to receive notification from the college much sooner of the usual notification date, acceptance by that university is binding; if you are accepted, you should withdraw all other pending requests or before requesting an early decision, you may want to have a "probable letter" handy (if issued by the school); Probable letters are only sent to athletes that universities take very seriously; The request for early decision should be considered only if you are being heavily recruited and directed to do so by the college coach. envelopes for sending a written evaluation to college coaches 97

98o Names, addresses, phone numbers (school, home cell), and email addresses of your top picks Follow up with coaches you sent tapes and/or resumes to; many times they don't have staff in the office so they may not watch your tape unless you remind them; use email and phone calls Give college coaches the name, address, phone numbers (school, home, cell), and email address of your high school coach Ask the college coach where you fit in on the draft list; Please understand that if a coach wants you, they cannot admit you, only the admissions office can. Once you've narrowed down your options, woo the coach or convince him you love him through letters, emails, etc.; try going to a practice or going to a game or see if they like the other athletes on the team, and if they like you or after a visit be sure to send a follow up email or thank you letter If you are lucky enough to Once you have been recruited and offered a scholarship, there are certain specific procedures to follow which are discussed on the National Letter of Intent website, www.national-letter.org. o Pay attention to registration start and end dates, which vary from sport to sport and often include a fall date and a spring date: Arts Admissions Students interested in fine arts and/or performing arts students have two possible options for choosing a college. They can choose to go to a school with a professional degree, most commonly a Bachelor of Fine Arts (BFA) or Bachelor of Music (BM) or earn a Bachelor of Arts. BFA or BM degrees are offered in conservatory programs or specialized schools. Most of the course work (up to 75%) is in art or music, auditions or portfolios are required, and career options are sometimes limited to teaching or practicing that particular trade. Many colleges offer bachelor's degrees in music, dance, fine arts, acting, etc., where only a quarter of the course work is in the arts and the degree may lead to further career opportunities in areas outside of the arts. Students choosing a BFA or BM degree should know that the arts is the only career they could conceive of. Barbara Eliot, Dean of Enrollment Management at the University of the Arts in Philadelphia, says kids who should be pursuing a BFA might say things like: I've been drawing my whole life. I can spend hours on a project. Creating a painting makes me proud in a way that no A+ ever could. What I realize is that I love music and that's it. When I get into the skin of a character, it is more than a fiction. I discover much more about myself and others. Art is more than a career. It is a lifestyle. Art is involved in a large part of our economy. Much of what we see as cultural markers in business and industry, from Starbucks and Jet Blue to IPOD and Target, are the products of designers and artists. All the ads, packages and products you see have been created by artists. 98

99When choosing a university, one must decide on the type of learning environment. These include liberal arts colleges, specialized colleges, conservatories, or technical schools. Within the specialized options, there is often a need to choose subspecialties. To major in dance, they may need, for example, to choose to major in ballet, modern dance, or jazz. Actors may have to choose between dramatic theater and musical theater. Students planning a career in the arts should plan a process that starts earlier and ends later than the standard college planning process. Students may need to start planning for an audition or portfolio in the third year. They can look at the websites of the colleges they are considering to see the portfolio and audition requirements. Students may want to visit npda.org for National Portfolio Days where they can get an evaluation of their portfolios. Due to the variety of requirements and portfolio review and audition dates, the admissions schedule may be quite different than for non-artists. Students who want to dedicate themselves to architecture are another case. A bachelor's degree in architecture is frequently a 5-year program. Some schools, such as the University of Washington, do not begin architecture work until the third year of college, culminating in a Master of Architecture. Architecture students have portfolio requirements that are quite different from those of fine artists. They usually need to show drawings and models that demonstrate both technical and artistic skills. Ethical and Legal Issues Most college admissions rules depend on honorable behavior on the part of applicants and colleges rather than the force of law. The system depends on those who apply to the university, as well as those who help them and those who recruit and select students, complying with the Standards and Principles of Good Practices (SPGP). The SPGP is the set of rules promulgated by the National Association for College Admission Counseling and has been around since the 1930s. When Yale and Stanford devised a new admissions plan in 2002, Single Choice Early Action, which was in line with the rules of the SPGP, provoked a crisis in the NACAC. They could enforce a rule that few felt was vital and potentially lose important members of the organization (Yale, Stanford, and Harvard) or not enforce the rules and appear to compromise on their values. This resulted in the creation of the Admission Standards Steering Committee to rewrite and reorganize the rules for admission to the university. I was lucky to be a member of this committee and participate in the process of creating this new document. The result was a clearer, more consistent document that members felt they could support. The one rule that has held up more firmly through these changes is that students have until May 1 to decide where they will attend. This is probably the only college admissions rule where the most SPGP violations are reported. Colleges are required to honestly represent what they offer, and high schools must be honest about how they describe their academic program and how they communicate student strengths. Other vital provisions involve the confidentiality of student information. The full text of the SPGP is below. Students are also expected to be honest in the process. They are expected to file no more than one request for a binding early decision and, if the early decision is granted, to withdraw all other requests. They are expected to be the authors of their university essays, although 99 are accepted.

100Have others read your essays and give advice on editing. They are also expected to answer all questions, including those related to disciplinary infractions, honestly. The main law that affects the college admissions process is the Federal Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA), also known as the Buckley Amendment. FERPA allows adult students or parents of minor students to inspect and amend school records. It also has a number of provisions dealing with the transmission of information on disciplinary infractions and with the confidentiality of letters of recommendation. FERPA allows, but does not require, high schools to communicate with other high schools or colleges where a student seeks to register information about a student's disciplinary record. The problem is sometimes not as clear as it seems. There are a number of situations that are problematic. These may include: Offenses that occur outside of school Sealed juvenile convictions Offenses that may be affected by a disability State laws or school policies that restrict the transmission of this information. High schools may have restrictions on reporting information about misconduct, so many ask students to provide this information. This issue came to public consciousness when it was discovered that a Harvard student had killed her mother with a candlestick but did not inform Harvard of this. Harvard withdrew her admission because she had not been honest in her application. My advice is that students should contact colleges about disciplinary infractions. My experience is that the admissions staff at the university treat this information fairly. I don't think it's worth the risk of having your admission withdrawn at a later date for not being honest. The other important part of FERPA that affects the college admissions process is the one that deals with the confidentiality of letters of recommendation. Many apps offer an option for students to waive their right to see letters of recommendation. Some high schools also give students the option to sign an access waiver. There are two important things about this exemption. For one, it can be signed by a minor and is legally binding. Second, it is a general disclaimer. Once a student signs a waiver, it applies to all recommendations to all colleges. I recommend that students always sign this waiver. It gives the university the confidence that what is written about the student is honest. On a more practical level, there is almost no chance that a student will be able to see a letter of recommendation, even if she doesn't sign this waiver. Universities are only required to show their files to students who are admitted and enroll. However, almost all colleges do away with letters of recommendation once the decisions are made. Colleges may not require students to sign an access waiver for students who request one, but those writing the letters may request one before agreeing to write a letter. Students also often wonder if they should answer the question: where else are you applying? There is only one proper answer to this question: undecided. Universities typically ask for this information to get an idea of ​​who their competition is. I can't imagine a situation where answering this question would serve a student well. If the other universities are more than 100

101competitive, it can give the impression that the student is using the university as a safety school. If colleges are less competitive, it can give the impression that this student is not as worthy. National College Admission Counseling Association Standards and Principles of Best Practice Core Values ​​Core Values ​​represent statements of the association's vision and beliefs and are the purview of the Board of Directors. Professionalism We believe that our work in advising, admissions and enrollment administration is professional only to the extent that we subscribe to and practice ethical behavior, as set forth in our Member Conventions. We are responsible for the integrity of our actions and, to the extent that we may affect them, for the actions of our member institutions and organizations. Collaboration We believe that the effectiveness of our profession, college advising, admissions and enrollment management, is enhanced when we work together to promote and protect students and their best interests. Trust We believe that our profession, college advising, and admissions and enrollment management, is based on trust, mutual respect, and honesty with each other and with students. Education We believe in and are committed to educating students, their families, the public, fellow education professionals, and ourselves about the transition to and within postsecondary education. Fairness and Equity We believe that our members have a responsibility to treat each other and students in a fundamentally fair and equitable manner. Social Responsibility We believe we have a duty to serve students responsibly, safeguarding their rights and access to and within postsecondary education. Membership Conventions All members of NACAC agree to abide by the following: 1. Members will make the protection of the best interests of all students a primary concern in the admissions process. 2. Members will evaluate students based on their individual grades and will endeavor to include all members of the society in the admissions process. 3. Members will provide accurate admission and financial aid information to students, empowering all participants in the process to act responsibly. 4. Members will respect student decisions regarding where they apply and choose to enroll. 5. Members will be ethical and respectful in their counseling, recruiting, and enrollment practices. 6. Members will strive to provide equal access to qualified students through education on financial aid processes and institutional financial aid policies. 101

1027. Members will comply with local, state, and federal laws regarding the treatment of students and confidential information. 8. Members will support a common set of definitions and deadlines related to admission. 9. Members will support and enforce the Statement of Good Practice Principles. I. Required Practices of All Members A. Promotion and Recruitment Members agree that they will: 1. Accurately represent and promote their schools, institutions, organizations, and services; 2. Not use derogatory comparisons of secondary or post-secondary institutions; 3. Not offer or accept any reward or remuneration from a high school, college, university, agency or organization for the placement or recruitment of students; 4. Be responsible for compliance with applicable laws and regulations regarding the privacy rights of students. B. Admission, Financial Aid, and Testing Policies and Procedures Members agree that: 1. They will not publicly announce the amount of financial aid awarded to any student without their permission; 2. Not guarantee admission or placement in a specific university or give guarantees of any financial aid or scholarship award before submitting an application, except when pre-existing criteria are established in official publications; 3. Not make unethical or unprofessional solicitations of other admission counseling professionals; 4. Send and receive confidential information about candidates; 5. Consider transcripts official only when transmitted in confidence, from the secondary or post-secondary institution(s) attended by the applicant; 6. Do not use the minimum test scores as the only criteria for admission and/or advice; 7. Be responsible for ensuring the accurate representation and promotion of their institutions in recruitment materials, presentations, and scholarships; 8. Provide, in a timely manner, accurate, legible, and complete transcripts for students transferring for admission or scholarships; 9. Advise students to comply with the application requirements and restrictions when submitting the application; 10. Allow pending Early Action, Restrictive Early Action, and Early Decision candidates to initiate any Regular or Variable Decision applications. II. Post-Secondary Members Required Internships A. Promotion and Recruitment Post-Secondary Members agree that they will: 1. Clearly state first-year requirements and transfer admission and enrollment processes, including high school preparation, standardized testing, financial aid , accommodation and notice periods, and reimbursement procedures; 2. Not knowingly recruit students who are enrolled, registered, have initiated deferred admission or have declared their intent, or have submitted contractual deposits to other institutions, unless the students initiate investigations themselves or unless the cooperation of institutions that provide transfer programs. B. Admission, Financial Aid, and Testing Policies and Procedures Postsecondary members agree that: 1. They will accept full responsibility for admission and financial aid decisions and for proper notification of those decisions to candidates; 102

1032. Not require applicants or high schools to indicate the order of applicants' college or university preferences, except under Early Decision plans; 3. Allow freshman candidates for fall admission to choose, without penalty, between offers of admission and financial aid through May 1. (Candidates admitted under an Early Decision program are a recognized exception to this provision); 4. Not offer exclusive incentives that provide opportunities for students applying for or admitting Early Decision that are not available to students admitted under other admission options; 5. Work with senior administrative officials at their institutions to ensure that financial aid and scholarship offers and housing options are not used to manipulate commitments prior to May 1; 6. Establish waitlist procedures to ensure that no student on any waitlist is required to make a deposit to remain on the waitlist or an enrollment commitment prior to receiving an official written offer of admission; 7. Indicate the specific relationship between admissions practices and policies and financial aid; 8. Notify successful aid applicants of financial aid decisions by the enrollment confirmation deadline, assuming all requested application forms are received on time; 9. Clearly state financial aid renewal policies which will typically include a review of students' current financial circumstances; 10. Not knowingly offer financial aid packages to students who commit to attend other institutions, unless students initiate such inquiries. Athletic scholarships, which adhere to nationally established signing periods, are a recognized exception to this provision; 11. Initially report all students admitted or enrolled in the first year, including special subgroups in the test score report. If data on population subgroups are also provided, clear explanations of who is included in the population subgroup will be given. third Counseling Members Mandatory Practices A. Promotion and Recruitment Counseling members agree that: 1. They will establish a policy for the disclosure of student names and other confidential information in accordance with applicable laws and regulations. B. Admissions, Financial Aid, and Testing Policies and Procedures Board members agree that they will: 1. Provide colleges and universities with a description of the schools' grading system which, if available, will provide some indication of the distribution of grades which may include class rank and/or grade point average; 2. Provide, as permitted by law, accurate descriptions of candidates' personal qualities that are relevant to the admissions process; 3. Sign only a pending advance decision or restricted advance action agreement, when applicable, for any student; 4. Follow, where applicable, the process used by applicants' high schools to submit college applications; 5. Not reveal, unless authorized, applicants' college or university preferences; 6. Work with school officials and other relevant persons to maintain the confidentiality of test results as governed by local law and regulations; 7. Report on all students within a distinct class (eg, freshman, sophomore, junior, and senior) and subgroups, including non-native speakers, on the standardized test score report. How can I pay for college? 103

104When most parents of school-age children attended college, it was considerably more affordable. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, college costs rose less than the cost of inflation. Beginning in the 1980s, universities began to charge, year after year, cost increases well above the rate of inflation. This trend did not abate until the beginning of the 21st century. Federal budget deficits have also resulted in less money reaching states from the federal government. The costs of public universities have also increased much more than the rate of inflation. The result is that the cost of college, relative to median income, has risen dramatically over the past two decades. Fewer and fewer colleges meet all the financial needs of students who leave huge bills for college. The best way to make sure college is affordable is to open college savings accounts when your child is young. The compound interest on savings makes savings accounts started when a child is young much more effective than those started when a child enters high school. The two main savings vehicles, which grow tax-free, are an education IRA and 529 accounts. The advantage of the IRA is that it can be invested in almost any way you want, but there are limits on how much you can invest and what income you must have to be eligible. Virtually anyone can open a 529 account and the maximum amount that can be invested is very high. But they must be invested in the plans of an elected state. You don't need to invest in your own state plan. Anyone can open a 529 account for someone else as long as the money is used for educational purposes. There is a lot written about the financial aid process and I won't repeat it all here. Perhaps the most important figure to know is the expected family contribution. There is a federal formula that calculates a federal EFC. This figure is calculated from the data on the FAFSA form and does not include home equity value. Colleges often calculate their own EFC using data from the CSS Profile (which includes home equity), the FAFSA, or their own forms. Generally, colleges and the government award financial aid when the cost of college is more than the EFC. There are some basic things that everyone applying for financial aid should know about the EFC. As of now, approximately one-third of all savings held by students are expected to be used for college. Only about six percent of parental assets are expected to be spent on college. When there is more than one student at the university, the EFC is divided by the number of students at the university. Most private colleges will provide grants and loans to students from their own resources to help defray college costs. Most public universities will only give students aid provided by the federal or state government. Both public and private universities award students merit-based scholarships that are not affected by students' financial need. There are legitimate ways to allocate funds to minimize a student's EFC. Parents who open savings accounts in their own names instead of their children will have a lower assessed EFC. Life insurance and retirement accounts do not count toward the EFC. If a parent feels they are underinsured or have insufficient retirement savings, they use money from sources that can be counted in the EFC, including investments, savings, and home equity, to purchase a whole life policy or to increase your retirement savings. A whole life policy usually has a cash value that can be called upon if financial emergencies strike. Money in most IRAs and other retirement accounts can similarly be used for educational expenses without the 10% penalty, which can have negative consequences. I recommend that you contact a licensed financial planner before taking any of these steps. you too should be 104

105aware that any transfer of assets must occur no later than 11/2 years before a child enters college. There are specific ways to reduce college costs. The easiest thing to do is to choose a less expensive university. Public universities in the state generally cost between $10,000 and $20,000. Going to a public university out of state can add $7-10,000 to this cost and the cost of private universities can exceed $50,000. Although much has been made of the availability of outside scholarships, they rarely cover a substantial portion of college costs. It's important to have an open conversation with your child, as uncomfortable as it may be, about college expenses. If there are financial limitations, be honest and direct. It's also reasonable for children to carry some of the college loans. The maximum that students can borrow is approximately $14,000 in Stafford loans. But a parent can borrow up to the full cost of college in a PLUS loan (Parent Loan for College Students). Parents may have adult students co-sign this loan. Once the loan is paid off for six months or more, it can be assigned to the student. This year Congress passed a law that has an effect on financial aid. Included in the provisions are: 529 savings plans. In the current financial aid formula, there are two types of plans, a "prepaid" plan that gives you credits toward future college tuition, and a plan that offers mutual funds. In the current system, the prepaid plan, wrote Janet Bryant Quinn in Newsweek, "costs parents dearly in financial aid. Starting July 1, 2006, both plans will be on equal footing... 529 plans in hands of a child." name will receive the same federal treatment in calculating financial aid as plans held in the parent's name." It is important to realize that private colleges may set different rules for awarding their own aid. Pell Grants. These student grants low-income are added to: up to an additional $750 for freshmen who have completed a "rigorous high school curriculum," up to an additional $1,300 for students earning a 3.0 or higher GPA, and up to $4,000 for juniors and seniors if they major in math, science, engineering or certain world languages ​​and maintain a 3.0 GPA Stafford Loans: These loans, effective July 1, will change from 5.3 percent variable rate loans to 6.8 percent fixed-rate loans Plus Loans will increase from 6.1 percent to 8.5 percent and will now be open to graduate students for the first time. Maximum Stafford Loans (known as Guaranteed Student Loans in "our day") will go up to $3,500 for freshmen (up to $875), $4,500 for sophomores (up to $1,000), and $12,500 for graduate students (up to $2,000). Debt Consolidation: If you have children who are now in college or have recently graduated, they can consolidate several student loans into one with a single fixed rate. Since rates are going to rise on July 1, it would be a good idea to consolidate before rates rise. For International Students: Apply for a US Student Visa 105

106Students from outside the United States experience much of the same college search and application processes if they choose to study at a US university. But international students don't just need to be accepted to a US university; they must also obtain permission from the United States government to live and study in the United States. Although the process is relatively simple, obtaining such a permit requires good planning and preparation. Read on to learn the basics of applying for a US student visa. The College Admission Process Before you can apply for a visa, you need to know which college you will be attending. So, just like students living in the United States, international students should research their college options, apply to multiple colleges, and be accepted to at least one of them. Unlike US students, international students must also prove to the university of their choice that they can afford all college fees and living expenses while studying in the United States. Some financial and merit aid may be available to international students, depending on the colleges they choose, but they should still have well thought out and documented financial plans for their years in the United States. Once you have been accepted and the university is satisfied that you can be kept, the university will send you an I-20 form. This form documents that you have been offered admission to the university and that the university is satisfied that you can pay for your studies there. It also gives you a "report date" or the date you are expected to arrive at the university to start classes. The I-20 is one of the main documents you will need to apply for a student visa. Documents and more documents Once you receive your I-20 from the university, it is time to gather the other documents you will need to apply for the visa. Students planning to attend a 4-year or 2-year academic program must apply for the F-1 visa. You need five main documents to apply for a visa: Form I-20, which you receive from the university. Form OF-156 (the visa application itself), which you can get from your local US embassy or consulate free of charge. A passport that is valid for at least the next six months (preferably longer). A passport size photo of yourself. A receipt showing payment of the visa processing fee. How you pay the fee differs in each country, so be sure to check with your local US embassy or consulate for more details. In some countries, you may not be able to pay the fee at the consulate. Although these documents are the only official documents needed to apply, you must also gather documentation to support certain aspects of your visa application. The Big Three Questions Your visa application, supporting documentation, and your interview with a consular officer (see below) should work together to answer the following questions: Are you a true student? 106

107Do you intend to return to your home country after college? Do you have enough money to support yourself while you are in the United States (without getting a job, which is illegal for nonimmigrant students)? Remember, under US law, it is the consular officer's job to find reasons to deny your visa. The officers must assume that you are trying to immigrate to the United States permanently. It is your job to prove otherwise. The documents needed to answer these questions may be different depending on your country and your situation, but may include any or all of the following: Your academic record to date. Copies of scores from any standardized tests you have taken (SAT, TOEFL, GRE, etc.). Admission letters and financial aid awards from your U.S. university Financial documents, such as bank statements for you and your family, tax documents showing your or your family's income, and statements of any planned investments use to finance your education. Documents showing scholarships or financial aid from other sources (college financial aid, government or organizational grants, outside scholarships). Business registration or licenses and other documents if you or your family own a business. Evidence that you intend to return to your home country, such as a statement from an employer that you will be considered for a job or offered a job after completing your studies in the US Evidence that you own assets in your country of origin; anything else that shows you have strong ties to your home country. If you are not sure what documents to bring, talk to your high school counselor, university contact for international students, or someone at the US consulate. The Interview All visa applicants must have an interview with an official from the US embassy or consulate in your country. You must schedule the interview no earlier than 90 days before the report date on your I-20. Different consulates may schedule interviews differently, so check with the consulate ahead of time. Additionally, US embassies and consulates in some countries are very busy and may have long waiting lists for visa interviews. It's a good idea to check with the consulate early in the college application process, even before you receive an I-20, in case your consulate has a waiting period. Some countries may have a waiting period of months; others can schedule interviews fairly quickly. During this interview, the consular officers will ask you a variety of questions about your plans for your education, finances, and career after college. Again, they are looking for any reason to believe that you are not a true student, that you may be planning to remain in the United States illegally, or that you will not be able to support yourself financially in the United States. The best way to succeed in your interview is to arrive well prepared. Think about your answers to some of the following questions: Why do you want to study in the United States? 107

108Why did you choose this university? Why did you choose this career? What jobs does this career prepare you for? How will studying in the United States prepare you for a job here at home? What have you been involved in that demonstrates your commitment to your home country? How will you pay for college fees and living expenses in the United States? (Remember, students on F-1 visas cannot get a job in the United States, except in special circumstances. Therefore, you cannot plan any income from work to pay for your studies or expenses at universities.) Other questions about the United States, your educational plans, your career plans and your finances. You may want to practice your answers with a counselor or friend. Be courteous and keep your answers short and to the point. Most interviews are under 5 minutes, so short answers are best. The future of student visas Since the terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11, 2001, the student visa process has been scrutinized by the media (several of the hijackers had visas to study at flight schools in USA). However, it is too early to say if the student visa application process will be affected. "At this point we can't know what will happen," says Hamilton Gregg, director of guidance at the Canadian Academy in Kobe, Japan. "Things are definitely up in the air, and I'm sure the visa officers will work very closely to determine that: The student is in fact a student and you can verify that that is true. The student has no ties to the US. and will return to their home country after completing their education in the US If the student has had military training, let it be with their home country's military I am sure there will be more scrutiny of students than they come from countries that have ties to hostile countries. Again, this is conjecture. More will be revealed in due course." For More Information This is only an overview of what international students can expect in the US visa application process. For more detailed information and help, talk to your high school counselor or college advisor. international students from your university. In addition, the US Department of State has posted quite a bit of information on its website (www.travel.state.gov/visa_services.html). If you have questions about the visa process, it's best to call your local US embassy or consulate directly, or check their website for information. You can find a list of links to US consulates around the world at: www.travel.state.gov/links.html. It may seem intimidating to call the consulate, but it is the best way to get good information about the visa process in your country. Spotlight on Financial Aid: Terminology and Words to Know Part I. The Application Process FAFSA Free Application for Federal Student Aid. A detailed form that is the first step in applying for federal aid, offered by the US Department of Education. The FAFSA is available at colleges, high school counselors, public libraries, and on the Internet. Only one FAFSA needs to be completed each year, even if you are considering several different colleges. 108

109You may also be able to use the FAFSA to apply for state and college aid. Contact your state agency and financial aid administrator to find out if you can use the FAFSA to apply for state and college aid, and to find out what types of aid may be available to you. The FAFSA is available in two formats: paper and electronic. If you complete a paper FAFSA, you will mail it directly to the application processor listed on the FAFSA. If the school you plan to attend participates in the Department of Education's electronic application system, you can submit your completed FAFSA directly to the school. The school enters your FAFSA information into its computer system and electronically transmits the data for you to the Department of Education. You can also apply for federal student aid electronically using FAFSA on the Web. You can complete the application online at www.fafsa.ed.gov. The site also contains helpful information about the electronic process and what to expect after completing it. CSS Financial Aid PROFILE: A supplemental needs analysis document used by some colleges and private scholarship programs to award their non-federal aid funds. At the beginning of your senior year, participating colleges may ask you to submit a PROFILE so that a predetermination of your eligibility for financial aid at that college can be made. The PROFILE does not replace the FAFSA; you must still submit a FAFSA to be considered for federal student aid. You must submit a PROFILE only for those universities and programs that request it. PROFILE registration forms, which are processed by the College Scholarship Service (CSS), are usually available at high schools or colleges. Financial Aid Package – Describes the total amount of aid a student receives. A package usually consists of several parts: grants/scholarships, loans, and jobs. Grants and scholarships are considered "gift aid." Loans and jobs are considered "self-help." Part II. Types of Financial Aid Grants and Scholarships: Money awarded to a student that has no repayment stipulation is known as a scholarship or grant. Scholarships and grants may come from the federal or state government, from private sources, or from the university itself. Grant eligibility tends to be based on need; when the need is high, the subsidy tends to be high as well. Scholarship eligibility is often based on financial need, academic achievement, particular talents or abilities, or a combination of one or more of these factors. In some cases, the terms "grant" and "scholarship" are used interchangeably. Loans: Any program described as a loan requires payment, usually with interest, to the funding source. The loans often come from the institution or from the private lender. In general, the greater the financial need, the larger the loan. There are usually a variety of payment options available and sometimes allow payment to be deferred while the borrower is enrolled in school. The time frame for repayment of the loan can be from two to three years or up to twenty years. Many banks and lending institutions now offer special loan programs to help parents finance their children's education. These loans are not based on financial need, but they can help stretch the family budget during the school years. Loans may be referred to as "self-help" aid. Jobs: Employment on and/or off campus for hourly wages during the academic year. In some cases, assignments are designed to complement the student's field of study. Jobs may also be called "self-help" help. Part III. Federal Student Aid Programs 109

110Eligibility for federal student aid programs, except the federal PLUS loan and the federal unsubsidized Stafford loan, which we will describe later, is based primarily on financial need. Families demonstrate the need for federal student aid by completing and submitting the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA), available from colleges, high school guidance counselors, public libraries, and/or the Internet. Federal Pell Grant: The largest individual aid program. Scholarships are awarded to students who demonstrate great financial need and are not required to be repaid. Using the FAFSA data, financial need is determined according to the Federal Methodology, a formula established by Congress to assess a family's ability to contribute to the student's educational costs. For each eligible student, the Department of Education sends funds to the school, which are then released to the student's account at the school or paid directly to the student. The maximum award varies annually, depending on the level of federal funding. For 2003-2004, the maximum Pell Grant is $4,050. Federal Perkins Loan (formerly the National Direct Student Loan): A federally funded, campus-based loan that is administered by the college aid office. Students do not apply separately for the Federal Perkins Loan; awarded to eligible students as part of a college aid package. An interest rate of five percent per year is charged after completion of studies, and a grace period is specified in the promissory note. The maximum Federal Perkins Loan that most colleges can award to a college student is $4,000 per year. In order to distribute limited funds to as many students as possible, most schools award prizes that are smaller than the maximum. Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant (FSEOG): A campus-based federal grant awarded to students who demonstrate significant financial need. Like the Federal Perkins Loan, students do not apply separately for FSEOG; awarded to eligible students as part of a college aid package. The maximum federal SEOG that most universities can award is $4,000 per year. However, due to the extremely limited funding for this program, prizes are often less than this amount. Federal Work-Study (FWS): A part-time work program that awards jobs on or off campus to students who demonstrate financial need. FWS positions are funded primarily by the government, but also partly by the institution. The university awards FWS to eligible students as part of the student's financial aid package. The maximum FWS award is based on the student's financial need, the number of hours the student can work, and the amount of FWS funds available at the institution. Federal Family Education Loan Program – This term covers two separate loan programs: a student loan known as a Federal Stafford Loan; and a loan for parents known as the Federal PLUS Loan. A FAFSA must be submitted for Federal Stafford Loan consideration. Federal Stafford Loan: A long-term, low-interest rate loan administered by the Department of Education through private commercial lending agencies (banks, credit unions, etc.). The maximum amount a dependent borrower can receive is $2,625 for the first year of school; $3,500 for the second year of study; and $5,500 for junior years and beyond, capped at $23,000 for an undergraduate education. The interest rate for first-time borrowers is variable, but will not exceed 8.25 percent. Students may borrow Federal Stafford Loan funds regardless of financial need. However, if financial need is demonstrated, the federal government may subsidize (ie, pay the lender) some or all of the interest while the student is in school and during grace and deferment periods. If the student does not demonstrate financial need, part or all of the loan will be 110

111not be subsidized, meaning the student, rather than the federal government, is responsible for interest during in-school, grace, and deferment periods. An additional cost of the loan is an origination fee of up to 3 percent and an insurance premium of up to 1 percent that are deducted from the loan. Federal PLUS Loan: A long-term federal variable interest rate loan currently capped at 9 percent and available to parents of dependent students. Like Federal Stafford Loans, Federal PLUS loans are administered by the Department of Education through private commercial lending agencies. There is no set limit on the amount of Federal PLUS funds a parent can borrow; however, the maximum loan cannot exceed the student's portion of the cost of education less any other aid the student receives. Federal PLUS loans are not subsidized and eligibility is not based on financial need. Payment generally begins immediately after the loan is fully disbursed. Federal PLUS Loans, like Federal Stafford Loans, have a maximum origination fee of 3 percent and a 1 percent insurance premium deducted from the loan. William D. Ford Federal Direct Loan Program – A program almost identical to the Federal Family Education Loan Program, except that the federal government is the lender and the funds are given directly to the school. If the college the student plans to attend participates in the Federal Direct Loan Programs, he or she will apply for a Federal Direct Stafford Loan and/or a Federal Direct PLUS Loan, instead of a Federal Stafford Loan or Federal PLUS Loan. Federal Direct Stafford Loan applicants must submit a FAFSA and, if eligible, must complete a promissory note provided by the college. Federal Direct PLUS loan applicants must complete an application available from the college. Part V. Institutional Aid Institutional Scholarships and Grants - Non-federal aid programs administered by the university. Institutional grants are generally based on financial need. Institutional scholarships are often awarded based on particular abilities or skills in areas such as athletics, music, or academic performance. These scholarships are often renewable for each college year, generally contingent on the student continuing to participate in the activity for which the award was made or, in the case of academic performance, maintaining a certain grade point average. Unfortunately, there are relatively few scholarships available through institutions. In many cases, it is the university that controls the scholarship process, inviting only certain students to become candidates. Institutional Loans: Non-Federal loan programs administered by the university. These loans generally have low interest rates and favorable payment terms. In many cases, loan payments are deferred while the student is enrolled in school. Universities have individual application requirements for institutional loans. Applicants should contact the university to learn about the types of loans available, the criteria that must be met to qualify, and the terms and conditions of the available loans. Institutional Student Employment: Employment programs on or off campus, similar to the federal work-study program. These positions may be awarded based on financial need, the student's job qualifications, or a combination of both. In some cases, these positions may be related to the student's field of study. The financial aid office should be contacted to find out what types of student employment are available through the school. Part IV. State Aid Programs 111

112Various states have different financial aid programs for residents of their own states. To determine the programs available in your state, check with your guidance office or email your state department of education. Part V. Private Aid Sources Private Scholarships: Non-Federal scholarships that originate outside the college and generally require the student to submit a separate application. While academic standing or financial need may be conditions for some private scholarships, these funds may also be awarded based on requirements such as field of study, religious affiliation, ethnicity, leadership skills, place of residence, or other criteria. Because these scholarships come from private funding sources, the criteria can reflect whatever qualities your benefactors want to reward or encourage. You should find and apply for as many of these awards as you can. High schools, Dollars for Scholars, churches, local businesses, and civic service organizations often have scholarship programs. The company where one of the parents works can also do it. Information on private awards, including how to apply for these funds, is usually available at your local or high school library. Private Loans – Like private scholarships, private loans originate outside of the university and typically require a separate application. Some private loans are awarded based on the same factors as private scholarships. Others, particularly those offered through commercial lenders, are approved based on the family's ability to repay the loan. Non-federal loans through commercial lenders are often available only to the student's parents. Amounts, interest rates, and payment terms and application procedures vary by individual loan program. Before considering a private loan, students should be sure they understand their rights and responsibilities under the loan program, including how interest is assessed, when repayment begins, and what repayment options are available. Resources Some suggested sources of inexpensive financial aid information: Cash for College. The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators (NASFAA), 1129 20th Street, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC. Available online at www.nasfaa.org/subhomes/cash4college/index2.html. Do It-Afford It. The National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators, 1129 20th Street, NW, Suite 400, Washington, DC 20036. Available at online at www.nasfaa.org (click on "Parents and Students"). Pay for college. A College Scholarship Service publication available from your guidance office. Or write College Scholarship Service, The College Board, 45 Columbus Ave., New York, New York 10023. www.collegeboard.org (click on "Pay for College"). I need a ride? The American Legion, National Emblem Sales, P.O. Box 1050, Indianapolis, IN 46206. $3.95 prepaid. www.legion.org/get_involved/gi_edaid_assist.htm. The Student's Guide: Five Federal Financial Aid Programs. Distributed through college financial aid offices or high school guidance offices, or individual copies are available by writing Student Financial Aid Programs, P.O. Box 84, Washington, DC 20202. Or call 800/4-FEDAID. 112

113Also available online at http://studentaid.ed.gov/students/publications/student_guide/index.html Words to Know FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid): The form to apply for financial aid from the US federal government including federal loans and grants. All universities require this form. Stafford Loan: Loans that are federally subsidized, which means you don't have to start repaying until six months after you graduate from college. Pell Grant: A need-based grant awarded by the federal government. You don't have to return this. Institutional Grant: A need-based grant awarded by the college you attend. Merit Scholarship: A scholarship usually awarded by the university you attend that is awarded based on academic or other qualifications, not financial need. Work-Study: A federally funded program in which the government helps a college pay you to work on campus. Financial Aid Package: A college's combination of grants, loans, and work-study to help pay college costs. Family Contribution: The amount of money that you and your family can contribute to pay for your education, determined by analysis of the FAFSA, Profile, and/or an institutional financial aid form. Demonstrated Need: The difference between the cost of attending a college (tuition and room and board) and the family contribution. A college that says it meets "total need" is referring to demonstrated need SMARTMONEY: 10 Things College Financial Aid Offices Won't Tell You By David Weliver Jan 14, 2004 1. "Did you wait until April? sorry, we give away your money." At first glance, the amount of financial aid available to students seems like a gold mine. According to the educational information and testing organization The College Board, students received more than $105 billion in aid last year for undergraduate and graduate study; more than $70 billion came from the federal government alone. The problem is that you will need a treasure map to find your part. The bewildering aid application process perplexes thousands of families each year, causing many to pay more tuition than they owe. 113

114Many students miss out on aid due to confusing deadlines for the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (Fafsa), which everyone must complete to be considered for government grants and subsidized loans. The forms, which are available at colleges and at www.fafsa.ed.gov1, are reviewed first by the government and then by your prospective student's school. While the deadline on the form is June 30, many schools' individual aid deadlines listed in college materials, but not on Fafsa forms, are as early as February. If you are the parent of a high school senior, keep a list of all the different school deadlines. However, to play it safe, ask for help as soon as the applications for admission are in the mail as now. "Families should submit their financial aid information as soon as they can after the January 1st prior to a student's freshman year," says Barry Simmons, Virginia Tech's director of aid. While the forms typically ask for prior year tax information , a common reason parents put off filing until April, it's entirely legitimate to estimate tax figures based on last year's return and update them later. 2. "Your mistake, your problem." If you don't complete some key parts of your Fafsa, the central processor will reject your form and return it to you and not to prospective schools, resulting in a potentially costly delay. A mistake parents make: putting their income and tax information in the student section or vice versa, which cannot be fixed by the machine scanning the form. As a security measure, Ohio State Aid Director Tally Hart recommends using the online form at fafsa.ed.gov; she'll alert you if she leaves the questions blank and can even spot some obvious mistakes, like a $50,000 household income combined with a $5 million mortgage. Of course, there are many circumstances that cannot be fully explained on a Fafsa form, for example, if a family member was recently laid off. In that case, officials recommend writing a letter to the aid office stating your family's financial situation and mailing it at the same time as your Fafsa. Just make sure the letter goes directly to the university. Too many people "send a Fafsa letter [to the government office], and it just gets destroyed," says Mark Lindenmeyer, director of aid at Loyola College in Maryland. 3. "Our low tuition rate means less financial aid." Many parents who haven't saved enough for college tell their gifted high school seniors not to consider expensive private schools. Ironically, those colleges may actually be the most affordable alternative. "The more expensive and prestigious the school," says Bedford, Massachusetts financial planner Tom Brooks, "the more likely it is to be well-endowed and able to meet 100% of needs," thanks to ex-donation drives. students. "You may be sending your child to a public school that costs [for you] more than Harvard, MIT or Stanford." To estimate the likelihood that your preferred colleges will give you substantial help, check some statistics with the colleges themselves or use the annual "America's Best Colleges" survey in the U.S. News & World Report, available at usnews.com for $12.95. Look up two figures: the percentage of college students who receive grants to meet their financial needs and the average college discount, which is the percentage of a student's total costs, including tuition, room and board, and books covered by the grants. If both are 50% or more, you can be sure that your needs will be met fairly. 4. "You will pay dearly for an early decision." 114

115Early decision is a big temptation at elite colleges: Students can apply months before everyone else, as long as they promise to attend if admitted. In most cases, the university offers these applicants a better chance of acceptance. But when it comes to getting help, an early decision can backfire. Because? Your commitment to attend if accepted means you have less influence. "If you went to a car dealership and threw yourself on the hood of a car and told them you'd do anything to have that car, you're not in a very good position to negotiate," says Linda P. Taylor, a certified college graduate. planning specialist in Agoura Hills, California. If help is your top priority, you're better off skipping the early decision. Especially if your child's SAT and GPA scores are above college average, and he excels in extracurricular activities. If you apply in the spring and are accepted, you'll have a better chance of negotiating a rich aid package. 5. "We don't buy your act of poverty." Every year, parents are tempted to cheat the aid system by trying to appear poorer on paper, perhaps by spending riotously. However, there are some perfectly acceptable ways to adjust your assets to maximize your potential for help. The first step is to cut any assets in the child's name, particularly custodial accounts (UGMA or UTMA), up to 35% of which the aid system will say should go toward next year's tuition. For assets in the parents' name, the rate is a much lower 5.65%. "Technically, parents are not allowed to touch UGMA except for the benefit of the child, beyond food and clothing," says Tom Brooks. But "you can use the UGMA to pay for things like summer camps, tutoring, school trips or a car [for the child], thus lowering the bill." But if you're looking to save some cash in your name, you could give up to $11,000 each more, which will trigger gift tax to grandparents or other relatives outside your household, who could then help pay tuition bills. ; aid officers are not allowed to touch your property. If your child is a few years away from college, be sure to contribute as much as possible to 401(k)s or IRAs. Colleges won't expect you to use your retirement savings to pay your share of tuition. 6. "We will judge you by your house...and your car." Fortunately for homeowners, the value of your home is not considered in most assistance formulas. On the other hand, if you're paying a hefty mortgage or sky-high property taxes to live in an elite suburb, colleges may not be all that understanding. Here's why: To determine aid, colleges calculate your expected family contribution based on your assets and adjusted gross income. They typically don't consider what your actual disposable income is or how short of cash you might be after paying off your stack of bills. "A moderately high-income family that spends most of its income on housing and other necessities may find its expected family contribution difficult or impossible to meet," says Roger Dooley, co-owner of the CollegeConfidential.com2 website. All is not lost, however. While most colleges don't automatically account for regional cost-of-living discrepancies, some can if you ask. When you write or talk to an aid officer during the application process, emphasize "involuntary" costs like taxes on volunteers like your mortgage, Dooley suggests. Your car is normally considered an involuntary expense, but elite schools sometimes ask what cars you own and when you bought them. If they are too new and too flashy, they may be considered voluntary expenses. 115

1167. "We'll let you borrow more than you can afford." Vickie Hampton, an associate professor of financial planning at Texas Tech University, knows that having a good education can make you poor. A colleague of hers, she says, racked up more than $100,000 in debt while earning a Ph.D. in English. "There's a very slim chance you'll pay that in your lifetime!" Hampton says. The situation is not unique, as more students are taking on excessive debt to finance degrees that lead to jobs in relatively low-paying fields. Unfortunately, college financial aid offices rarely discourage these decisions. While there are legal limits for certain government loans based on lifetime borrowing caps, there are fewer limits for loans from private lenders like Sallie Mae, KeyBank, or Citibank, three of the biggest players. If your student must borrow, exhaust federal programs first. Perkins loans or subsidized Stafford loans that may be offered to you after filing a Fafsa are best; its rates of 5 and 3.42%, respectively, make others gasp, and interest doesn't accrue until after the borrower leaves school. The Perkins, which you pay directly to your school, is a bit more flexible of the two and offers longer grace periods. Beware of unsubsidized Stafford loans, which your college may offer if your family doesn't qualify for subsidized loans. Although these loans have similarly low rates, interest will accrue from the time the loan is made, even if no payments are required yet. While parents can also consider a Federal Parent Loan for College Students (PLUS), which currently has a rate of 4.22% and has a maximum rate of 9%, a home equity line of credit may be a better option, since which offers more generous tax benefits. Find more information on government loans at www.studentaid.ed.gov3. 8. "External scholarships help us, not you." Sure, you're proud of the five scholarships your high school student won from community groups like the Lions Club and a local church, but don't feel relieved. Unless you didn't have any financial aid, those scholarships won't make a dent in what you have to pay. "Many parents mistakenly think their cost will go down, and then are disappointed to learn that it's actually the [school's] grant that will go down, saving money for college and not the family," says Anne Macleod Weeks, principal counseling at Oldfields School in Glencoe, Md. Federal guidelines require that outside scholarship money be considered a resource to meet financial need. This means you can't use the scholarship dollars for your expected family contribution, and the college can reduce the amount of aid you receive. Still, applying for outside grants can help, especially if you're looking for a relief package that includes more loans than grants. Ask your college if you can lower the loans first, says Jim Eddy, aid director at Willamette University in Salem, Oregon. "Second, [it can] reduce work and study." In that case, some scholarships could still save thousands of dollars in interest and allow your student to study more and eat fewer burgers. 9. "We are not going to 'negotiate', we are going to 'review'." College financial aid guides have long urged parents to negotiate with aid offices, often suggesting they bring in a better aid offer from a "competing" school to embarrass them. to give you more money. Tread carefully. Many aid managers hate this tactic. Some schools have strict no-trade policies, while others are only slightly more accessible. "Certainly there is no harm 116

117ask a college to review an aid decision," says Loyola's Lindenmeyer. But "we don't bargain and we don't match other colleges." So how do you ask for a "review" aid package, start by avoiding words like "bargain " or "win," says Virginia Tech's Simmons, and don't throw another school's aid award in an officer's face. Instead, thank the officer for their hard work and the school's generosity, then do follow up by expressing doubts about being able to afford your family contribution If you have not already done so in writing, explain any special circumstances you have, such as recent unemployment, a death in the family, or medical expenses Then, directly but politely, ask if there is anything the aid office can do to help Once you have established a relationship with the officer, try to casually mention that you have a competing offer and where else your student has been admitted officers can refer you to loan opportunities external or payment plans. Whatever the answer, don't push it. Remember, you will trust this person's award decisions for the next three years. 10. "Thought freshman year was expensive? Wait until senior year." His son just got his award letter and got a large four-year grant that covers most of his tuition, with a small loan for the rest. You are ready, right? Not necessarily. Two problems stand in the way. First, the number of federally subsidized loans a student can borrow increases slightly each year; As a result, your college can expand the loans it offers in subsequent years and reduce the size of the grants. Second, many parents and students assume that merit-based four-year awards will keep pace with tuition increases. "Very few schools are as generous," warns Eddy of Willamette. Nationwide, the median price for private schools increased 6% over last year, with the median cost for resident students now just over $29,500. Assuming a constant 6% annual price increase and aid At a constant $25,000 each year, the $4,500 contribution you made for your student's freshman year could increase to $10,135 for senior year. If your child receives merit-based aid, ask if the college can adjust it for tuition inflation. Regardless, make sure your student continues to study the books. A mediocre GPA can end up with a merit scholarship faster than roommates can gobble down a pizza at midnight. 1[ http://www.fafsa.ed.gov ]http://www.fafsa.ed.gov 2[ http://CollegeConfidential.com ]http://CollegeConfidential.com 3[ http://www. studentaid.ed.gov ]http://www.studentaid.ed.gov 4[ http://ccare.hearstmags.com/cgi-bin/absplit.cgi?SplitFile=smyhome.urls ]http://ccare.hearstmags .com/cgi-bin/absplit.cgi?SplitFile=smyhome.urls I end with a quote from David Brooks, New York Times columnist for the OP Ed page on March 30, 2004: You are being judged on criteria you would never use to judge another person and that it will never apply to you again once you leave higher education. For example, the university is taking a hard look at your SAT scores. But if at any point in your later life you mention your SAT scores in conversation, you'll be considered a complete jerk. If at 40 you're still proud of your scores, you may want to contemplate a major makeover in your life. 117

118There are a lot of bright and lively young people in this country and you will find them in any school you go to. Students in the truly elitist schools may have more social confidence, but students in less prestigious schools may learn not to let their lives be guided by other people's rules of status, a lesson worth doing in itself. As for the quality of education, it is about you really wanting to learn and being lucky enough to meet a teacher who sparks your interest in a subject. That can happen in any school because good teachers are spread out too. So remember, the letters you receive in the next few weeks [of acceptance or rejection] do not determine anything. Choosing a college is like choosing a spouse. You don't choose the best ranked, because that doesn't make sense. You choose the one with the personality and character that complements yours. 118

119Appendix I, Reed College Website: PERCENTAGE RANKING OF PH.D.S, BY ACADEMIC FIELD, AWARDED TO GRADUATES FROM LISTED INSTITUTIONS All Disciplines Life Sciences Chemistry Humanities Harvey Mudd Calif. Reed Inst. Reed California Reed Inst. Swarthmore Yale Tech. Swarthmore University Chicago Wabash Bryn Mawr MIT Kalamazoo Carleton Swarthmore Carleton MIT Grinnell Amherst Oberlin College Earlham Carleton Wooster Bryn Mawr Harvey Mudd Kalamazoo Oberlin Univ. Science Texas Lutheran Haverford Chicago in Philadelphia Yale Grinnell Bowdoin Pomona Foreign History Languages ​​Political Science Physical Science Yale Bryn Mawr Swarthmore Harvey Mudd Grace Grinnell Haverford Calif. Reed Reed Inst. of Technology Reed MIT Swarthmore Kalamazoo Princeton Reed N.M. Wesleyan Institute Amherst Univ. of Chicago Mining Carleton St. John's St. John's Carleton Oberlin Bennington Tougaloo Wabash Univ. of Grinnell Oberlin Univ. of the US Coast Guard South Chicago Pomona Yale Grinnell Acad. Lawrence Amherst University Rice Chicago 119

120Mathematics and Computer Science and Engineering Science Physical Science Social Science Calif. California Institute of Technology California Institute of Technology Swarthmore Technology. Harvey Mudd Harvey Mudd Harvey Mudd Haverford MIT MIT MIT Carleton N.M. Institute of Univ. of Reed Reed Mining Chicago Rice Swarthmore Reed Reed Princeton Carleton Univ. of Chicago Princeton University. from Univ. of Chicago Princeton Williams Chicago Carnegie Mellon Rice Carleton Oberlin St. John's Princeton Marlboro Yale Pomona Haverford Rice Pomona Area & Ethnicity English Anthropology Studies Linguistics Literature Bryn Mawr Hampshire Shimer St. John's Coll San Francisco Beloit Amherst Yale Cons. of Music Great Lakes Marlboro St. John's Amherst Christian Grinnell St. John's Grinnell Bryn Mawr Harris-Stowe State Univ. Wilson Swarthmore Chicago Reed Wesleyan Swarthmore Bennington Simon's Rock Goddard Reed Reed College of Bard Pomona Carleton Goddard Oberlin Univ. of Sarah Lawrence Bryn Mawr Reed Hawaii at Hilo College of the Univ. of Goucher Williams Atlantic Chicago 120

121University of Medical Sciences. of Science at Philadelphia Albany College of Pharmacy Hampshire U.C., San Francisco Ohio Northern Stanford Univ. of Texas Health Science Center Reed Mount Holyoke Wellesley Source: Weighted Study of High School Origins, Higher Education Data Exchange Consortium. This shows the baccalaureate origins of people who received doctorates between 1992 and 2001. The list shows the top 10 institutions in the nation ranked by percentage of graduates earning a doctorate. in selected disciplines. 121

122Apéndice II: Lista de Lauren Popes de su libro y sitio web: Universidades que cambian vidas: Universidades que cambian la vida de los niños Agnes Scott College Allegheny College Antioch College Austin College Beloit College Birmingham-Southern College Center College Clark University College of Wooster Cornell College Denison University Earlham Universidad Eckerd College Emory and Henry College Goucher College Guilford College Hampshire College Hendrix College Hiram College Hope College Juniata College Kalamazoo College Knox College Lawrence University Lynchburg College Marlboro College McDaniel College (anteriormente Western Maryland College) Millsaps College Ohio Wesleyan University Reed College Rhodes College Southwestern University St. Andrews Presbyterian College St. Johns College St. Olaf College The Evergreen State College Ursinus College Wabash College Wheaton College Whitman College 122

123Appendix III: Comments from Students Who Completed Their Freshman Year of College: BEFORE I GOED TO COLLEGE I WISH I HAD KNOWN... I would change a lot and barely realize - That you can love a lot of people in many different ways - That college kids can too they drop planes - That if you wear polyester everyone will ask you why you're so dressed up - That every clock on campus shows a different time - That if you were smart in high school - so what? - That I would go to a party the night before a final exam - That chemistry labs require more time than all my other classes combined - That you can know everything and still fail an exam - That you can know nothing and pass a test - That I could get used to almost anything I found out about my roommate - That home is a great place to visit - That most of my education would be gained outside of my classes - That friendship is more than just getting drunk together - That I would be one of those people my parents warned me about - That the free lunch served at 10:00 is no longer available at 9:50 - That Sunday is a figment of the world's imagination - That the psychology is really biology, biology is really chemistry, chemistry is really physics, and physics is really mathematics. - That I really wouldn't be with that friend (boy/girl) from high school for the rest of my life - That bedrooms can be both your lifeline and your personal hell at the same time - That beer would play an intricate role in my future 123

124- That ramen and spaghetti would be my life - How much I would miss my washer and dryer at home "I wish I had known about the common app sooner." I wish I had listened to you! (this was due to changes that had been made since big brother applied over 5-6 years prior!) I wish I had read all the material I was given and sent to throughout the year. I wish I had talked to my son more about other things last year, now he's gone and I don't know what a young man he's become. Probably the one we get the most from kids is "If I ever knew that freshman grades "counted"." (If I hear any of the better ones, like, "I wish I could have helped my son focus on what really matters instead of being so obsessed with getting him into an Ivy," I'll let you know. But at this point I'd just have to! make that up! No one has said that yet!) Don't forget the perennial, "I wish I'd known to start the process sooner." I also hear from parents "I wish I knew there were people like you (counselors) to help with the process." I wish I hadn't pushed my son so hard.” “I wish we had listened to his counselor.” “I wish I had relaxed and taken a softer approach to this whole process.” the kids have fun until 4 a.m. in the dorm on Monday mornings. at night, tuesday nights, wednesday nights... This came from a direct student, who doesn't drink or smoke. He wants to get out of that school, because it's the wrong combination. I wish I had known that the course load of the engineering program conflicts with baseball practice The student could not participate in the baseball team because the courses were only given during practice 124

125Appendix IV: Early Entry College Programs: Early Entry College Programs Many colleges, when approached individually, will allow the young student to take a course or two. Others will allow the young student to enroll, often based on their SAT or ACT scores and previous academic achievement. But some schools have specialized programs designed for young students at least 2 years before high school graduation. These programs are listed here... Advanced Academy of Georgia West Georgia University, West Georgia, Georgia, USA High school juniors and seniors enroll full-time in the State University of West Georgia Honors College and, upon At the same time, they complete high school graduation requirements for Alaska Pacific University Anchorage, Alaska, USA. The Early Honors Program is both an alternative to the senior year of high school and a challenging stepping stone to college... Bard High School Early College Bard College, New York City, New York, USA grade through the first two years of college, earning an Associate of Arts (A.A.) degree as well as a high school diploma... University Academy of Boston Boston, Massachusetts USA A co-educational day school for students in grades 8-12, Boston University Academy offers an educational program that combines a classic curriculum with a rigorous approach to the intellectual and cultural challenges of contemporary life California State University , Los Angeles, Early Entry Program (EEP) Los Angeles, California USA "Why is college so young?" CSULA EEP Parent Testimonial The Clarkson School Potsdam, New York, USA Clarkson School Bridging Year is a 1-year early entry residential program for 12th graders Early College at Guilford (ECG) Guilford College, Greensboro, NC, USA for students from Guilford County, NC EarlyEntrance.org Young people should never be a barrier to learning. There are a number of programs that make early college a reality for today's more talented youth... University of Denver Early Experience, Denver, Colorado, USA (EH) Alaska Pacific University, Anchorage, Alaska, USA Your Ultimate year of high school can be your first year of college... 125

126Florida Atlantic University High School Boca Raton, Florida Intensive dual enrollment public high school on the university campus. The highly selective program offers high school students (grades 9-12) the opportunity to earn high school credit and college course hours, at the same time, at no cost to parents or guardians... Academy of Mathematics, Engineering and Georgia Science (GAMES) Middle Georgia College, Cochran, Georgia, USA For middle or high school students with a special interest in math, engineering, science, and health-related fields; students who complete the 2-year program receive an associate's degree and a high school diploma Get Out of Jail Free Full list of part-time college and early college programs for gifted students... Mary Baldwin College, The Gifted Program (PEG) Staunton, Virginia USA Academically talented young women begin their college education 1-4 years early within a community of their peers, anytime after completing 8th grade, though often one year of high school experience recommended The Missouri Academy of Science, Mathematics and Computing Northwest Missouri State University, Maryville, MO, USA Applicants must be currently enrolled in the tenth grade or equivalent, having completed Geometry and Algebra II at the end of the sophomore year; two-year program of college courses, simultaneously earning college credit and a high school diploma National Academy of Arts, Sciences, and Engineering (NAASE) University of Iowa, Iowa, USA Early Entrance Program for those who have completed courses equivalent to the Third year ; Academy students are automatically accepted as freshmen into the University of Iowa Honors Program Residential Honors Program (RHP) University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA Early Entrance Program 1 year; students earn a high school diploma while concurrently enrolled in USC Shimer College Early Entrant Program classes Waukegan, Illinois, USA. Shimer's fifty-year experience shows that the serious student entering college after high school 11th grade, and in some cases beyond 10th grade, handle college life responsibly... Simon's Rock College of Bard Great Barrington, Massachusetts USA Most applicants are 14-16 years old and have completed the ninth grade; get an Associate of Arts degree after 2 years, or a Bachelor of Arts after 4 years How much high school is enough? Some students benefit from leaving after 10th grade, some educators say by Washington Post staff writer Valerie Strauss 126

127Texas Academy of Leadership in the Humanities (TALH) Lamar University, Beaumont, Texas, USA Two-year residential honors program that allows high school juniors and seniors to complete their last two years of high school credits and their first two years of college requirements concurrently Texas Academy of Mathematics and Science (TAMS) University of North Texas, Denton, Texas, USA Residential program for high school-age Texas students who are gifted in mathematics and science and have completed the tenth grade; upon completion, students receive a special high school diploma and are classified as college students. Total Enrollment at All Degree-Granting Institutions, by Sex, Age, and Attendance Status, with Alternate High Projections: Selected Years, Fall 1993-Fall 2013 from NCES National Center for Education Statistics Consider college enrollment figures a full and part-time, current and projected, for men and women ages 14-17... University of Washington Early Entry/Transition Program Seattle, Washington, USA The Transition School for non-major students 14-year-olds, and Early Entry Program for full-time college students who are "graduates" of the Transition School All Rivers Lead to the Sea: A Follow-up Study of Gifted Youth (Adobe Acrobat file, click here to download Adobe Reader) From: http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/early_college.htm Appendix V: SAT Subject Tests: (from http://www.compassprep.com/admissions_req_subjects.aspx) Subject Subject Subject Tests School Tests Tests Recommended Required Deemed American University * X Amherst College 2* Babson College * 2 Bard College * X Barnard College 2 * Bates College * X Beloit College * X Bennington College * X Boston College 2* Boston University 2* Bowdoin College * X Brandeis University 2* 127

128Brown University 2* Bryn Mawr College 2* Bucknell University * X California Institute of Technology 2* Carleton College * X Carnegie Mellon University 2* Case Western Reserve University * 3 Claremont McKenna * X Colby College * X Colgate University * X College of the Holy Cross * X College of William and Mary * X Colorado College * X Columbia University 2* Connecticut College 2* Cooper Union * X Cornell University 2* Dartmouth College 2* Davidson College * 2 Duke University 2* Emory University * X Franklin Olin College of Ingeniería 3* George Washington University * X Georgetown University 3* Goucher College * X Hamilton College * X Hampden-Sydney College * 2 Harvard y Radcliffe Colleges 3* Harvey Mudd College 2* Haverford College 2* Hollins University * X Ithaca College * X Johns Hopkins University * 3 Kenyon College * X Lafayette College * X Lehigh University * X Macalester College * X Massachussetts Institute of Technology 3* McGill University 3* Middlebury College * X Mills College * X Mount Holyoke College * X New York University * 2 Northwestern University * 3 Oberlin College * X Occidental College * 2 128

129Pomona College 2* Princeton University 3* Providence College * 2 Reed College * X Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute * X Rice University 2* Scripps College * X Skidmore College * X Smith College * 2 Stanford University * 3 Swarthmore College 2* Trinity College (CT) * X Tufts University 2* Tulane University * X University of California, Berkeley 2* University of California, Davis 2* University of California, Irvine 2* University of California, Los Angeles 2* University of California, Merced 2* University of California, Riverside 2* University of California, San Diego 2* University of California, Santa Barbara 2* University of California, Santa Cruz 2* University of Chicago * X University of Delaware * 2 University of Notre Dame * X University of Pennsylvania 2* University of Rochester * X University of Southern California * X University of Texas, Austin * X University of Virginia 2* Vanderbilt University * X Vassar College 2* Wake Forest University * X Washington and Lee University 2* Washington University at St Louis * X Wellesley College 2* Wesleyan University 2* Whitman College * X Williams College 2* Worcester Polytechnic Institute 2* Yale University 3* *If ACT score is submitted, subject tests may not be required. 129

130Appendix VI: List of Lists: From NACAC Electronic List Responses: Accelerated Dental Program Adelphi University with Tufts University Boston University Case Western Reserve Case Western Reserve University Marquette Moravian (with Temple) NYU St. John's (with Columbia) Stevens Institute of Technology Tufts University U Iowa U Missouri--Kansas City U Nebraska--Omaha U Penn U Texas--Austin University of Minnesota University of Pennsylvania University of Southern California University of the Pacific Virginia Commonwealth University Wilkes University with Temple University Acoustical Engineering www.aes .org (Audio Engineering Society) www.neit.edu (New England Institute of Technology) www.connectedu.net (to do a search) American U. Belmont U. (Nashville) Bucknell Clemson College of Santa Faith DePaul Drexel Emerson Five Towns College Hope Illinois Indiana Lebanon Valley Loyola (New Orleans) 130

131Loyola Marymount Maryland Miami (FL) Michigan Middle Tennessee State NYU Ohio U. St. Mary's (Winona, MN) Stevens Inst. of Technology (NJ) Texas State-San Marcos Trinity (Connecticut) U. de Hartford U. de New Haven U. de Rochester UMass-Lowell Union (Nueva York) USC Virginia Tech Air Traffic Control College of Aeronautic Community College of Beaver County Daniel Webster College Dowling College Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University Hampton University Universidad Interamericana de Puerto Rico Miami-Dade Community College Middle Tennessee State University Minneapolis Community & Technical Mt. San Antonio College Purdue University University of Alaska Anchorage University of North Dakota Art Therapy Arcadia Art Inst of Chicago College of New Jersey College of New Rochelle College of Santa Fe Lesley College LIU/CW Post Loyola Marymount California Loyola University of New Orleans 131

132Millikin U Mount Mary College, Wisconsin Nazareth College NYU Seton Hill College Spring Hill College Springfield College St. Thomas Aquinas U of Indianapolis U of the Pacific U of Wisconsin - Superior Asperger's College for Albion C Augsberg Clark U Earlham Elon University Guilford College (varios mencionados este) Goucher College Harvey Mudd Landmark College (2 menciones) Manhattanville Mitchell College CT Moravian C Muskingum (varios de ustedes sugirieron esto) Northeastern U Schreiner University en Kerrville, Texas Southern Illinois-contact Roger Pugh U Arizona U Central Florida (Orlando) U Denver U Illinois-Champaign U Mass-Boston U Montevallo-Alabama U Ozarks U Puget Sound U Rochester Westminster C-MO Whitman Wilkes University Worcester Poly Aviation Science Arizona State University Polytechnic Campus Averett University 132

133Bowling Green State University Central Washington University Daniel Webster College Dowling College Embry-Riddle Florida Institute of Technology Jacksonville University Kent State LeTourneau University Lewis University (IL) Lynn University Metropolitan State (Denver) Ohio University Louis University Purdue University Southern Illinois University SUNY University of Alabama University of Cincinnati University of MinnesotaCrookston University of NebraskaOmaha University of North Dakota Vaughn College of Aeronautics Webster University Western Michigan University Westminster College (UT) Automotive Engineering www.students.sae.org/chapters /choosecollege: ASU-Polytech campus E. Tenn State Kettering University (formerly GMI-General Motors Institute), MI Lehigh LMU McPherson College Mercer, GA Michigan Tech New England Institute of Tech Northwood, MI Pennsylvania College of Technology, Williamsport Pittsburg State (Kansas). ) Purdue Rochester Inst Tech Rose- Hulman SUNY Morrisville University of Cincinnati 133

134UNC Charlotte Weber Western Washington U. Automotive: otro Alfred State, NY CLE (FL), Greenville Tech, GA Lawrence Inst of Tech, MI Northwood (FL, TX, MI), Southern Illinois SUNY Canton College of Tech SUNY Farmingdale SUNY Morrisville Vermont Tech Vincennes, IN Weber Ballet Barnard Butler Goucher IU NYU Oklahoma Skidmore, SMU TCU U. of Arizona Utah BFA/BA Programas conjuntos Art Center College of Design y Occidental College y California Art Institute of Boston y Lesley University Cleveland Institute of Art y Case Western Reserve University Institute of Technology Maryland Institute College of Art y Johns Hopkins University Massachusetts College of Art y Wentworth Institute of Technology, Milwaukee Institute of Art and Design y Marquette University Minneapolis College of Art and Design y Macalester College Pacific Northwest College of Art y Reed College y Portland State Parsons School of Design y Eugene Lang College Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts y University of Pennsylvania Rhode Island School of Design y Brown University School of the Art Institute of Chicago y Roosevelt University 134

135School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Tufts University School of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston and Wheaton Simmons College, Emmanuel College, Massachusetts School of Pharmacy, Wheelock College Birding Auburn University Ball State College of the Atlantic College of the Atlantic University Colorado State Cornell University Laboratory of Ornithology Eckerd College, Florida Florida State Lake Superior State University Lesley University LSU Miami University Muhlenberg Western North Carolina State Sterling College SUNY- New Paltz Univ. of Tennessee University of Florida University of MN. University of Wisconsin Block Programming (one course at a time) Coe Colorado College Cornell College (Iowa) Evergreen State (Washington) Salem Teiko (West Virginia) Tusculum (Tennessee) Brain and Cognitive Science Behavioral Neuroscience, Psychobiology/Biopsychology Amherst U of Arizona Brandeis Carleton C. Carleton U. (Ottawa, Canada) 135

136Dalhousie U. Dartmouth Davidson University of Denver Hiram Indiana U. Johns Hopkins Knox College Lawrence U. Lebanon Valley College Lehigh U. U. of Louisiana, Lafayette Oberlin Western College Ohio Wesleyan U. U. of Oregon U. Pennsylvania Pitzer Reed St. Louis University. Lawrence U U. of Rochester College of Saint Rose Stanford Trinity (CT) Vanderbilt Vassar Wagner College Washington College Wheaton College (MA students C+/B- Alfred (NY) Allegheny (PA) Assumption Assumption College in Worcester, Massachusetts Berry (GA) Birmingham -Southern (AL) Brookville, New York Bryant College and Smithfield, RI Castleton State College Catholic (DC) Cedar Crest (PA) Centenary College Champlain College (VT) Colby-Sawyer College and New London, NH College of Mt (NY) College of Santa Fe (NM)

137College of Wooster (OH) Creighton (NE) Curry College in Milton, MA Davis & Elkins (WV) Denver (CO) DeSales (PA) Eckerd (FL) Elmira (NY) Elon (NC) Endicott College, Beverly, MA Fairleigh Dickinson Franklin Pierce University in NH Frostburg State, Frostburg, Maryland Goucher (MD) Green Mountain College in VT Guilford (NC) Hampden Sydney (VA) Hartwick (NY) Hiram (OH) Hobart (NY) Hood College in Frederick, Maryland Jacksonville (FL). ) ) Johnson State Juniata (PA) Keene State (NH) Lasell College Long Island University: CW Post Campus at Loyola (LA) Lynchburg (VA) McDaniel College at Westminster, MD. Mercer (GA) Merrimack (MA) Millsaps (MS) Mount Olive College New England College Niagara University (NY) Nichols College Oglethorpe (GA) Oxford at Emory (GA) Pace University in New York, New York Pennsylvania Pine Manor College, Presbyterian ( NC) Providence (RI) (?) Rider University in Lawrenceville, New Jersey Roanoke (VA) Roger Williams University in Bristol, Rhode Island Sacred Heart (CT) 137

138Salve Regina (RI) Santa Clara (CA) Spring Hill (AL) St. Andrews in Laurinburg, NC Anselm St. Bonaventure University in St. Louis Bonaventure, New St. Louis. St. Lawrence (NY) St. Michael's St. Michael's (VT) Peter's College (NJ) Stetson (FL) Tampa (FL) TCU (TX) The State University of New York at Cobleskill Transylvania (KY) Trinity University of Hartford (CT) University of Louisiana at Lafayette University of Maine in Orono , Maine University of New England at Biddeford , Maine University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown at Johnstown , Washington College (MD) Western New England (MA) Widener (PA) Wilkes University (PA) York Career search COPS Explore, PLAN, Discover-- everything through the self-directed search of ACT Harrington-O'Shea Holland Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory www.myroad.com (through College Board) www.dowhatyouare.com www.cdm.uwaterloo.ca/index.asp www.careercruising .com www. schoolsintheusa.com www.campusstarter.com www.princetonreview.com http://mois.org/moistest.html www.mymajors.com www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/careers/ccciss.htm www.christiancollegementor.com www .birkman.com http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/Jtypes1.htm http://monet.mercersburg.edu/college 138

139http://careerkey.org http://www.similarminds.com/ http://www.personality.com/ www.personalitytype.com www.advisorteam.com Child Development Program for Children with Developmental Disabilities Univ. of Arizona U.C. - Riverside UC - San Diego Cal Lutheran Cal State - L.A. Cal State - Northridge Chapman Univ. DePaul University. Eastern Washington University. Loyola Marymount Mercyhurst College Mt. St. Mary's Old Dominion Univ. University of Oregon Pacific Lutheran University. Simmons College Southwestern Texas State University. Syracuse University. Conservative Whittier Colleges Adrian Alabama Air Force Academy (Tuscaloosa) Albertson Assumption Auburn Babson Baylor Bentley Berry Birmingham South Boston University Bradley Brigham Young Bryant Bucknell California Lutheran Calvin 139

140Center Claremont McKenna Colgate Creighton Dallas Dartmouth Davidson DePauw Denison Elizabethtown Fairfield Flagler Florida Florida Southern Furman Georgetown Georgia Grove City Gustavus Adolphus Hamilton Hampden-Sydney Hanover Hillsdale Hobart Hollins Holy Cross Holy Names Hope Iona LaGrange Lafayette Lawrence Lehigh Lynchburg Marist Merideth Miami (OH) Milsaps Molloy Academia Naval de Muskingum Carolina del Norte (Chapel Hill) Notre Dame Oglethorpe Patrick Henry (empresa emergente de VA, fundamentalista) Penn Pepperdine Princeton 140

141Providence Purdue Regis Rhodes Richmond Ripon Rochester SMU Salve Regina Sewanee Southern Methodist St. Anselms St. Lawrence St. Olaf Stetson Sweet Briar Syracuse Texas A&M Transylvania Trinity (CT) Tufts Vanderbilt Virginia Tech Wabash Wake Forest Wartburg Washington and Lee West Point Wheaton (IL) Whitworth William Smith William y Mary Wofford Programas de gestión de la construcción de Yale Alfred State University Arizona State University Auburn Bowling Green State University Clemson Drexel East Carolina Florida A & M Florida International Georgia Southern 141

142Louisiana State University Michigan State University Ferris State Middle Tennessee State Mississippi State Murray State University North Dakota State University Northeast Louisiana University Northern Arizona University Oklahoma State PA College of Technology (Williamsport) Pratt Purdue Regis Roger Williams Southeast Missouri State SUNY Morrisville U of Arkansas (Little Rock) U of Denver U of Florida U of Houston U of Maryland Eastern Shore Campus U of North Florida U of District of Columbia U of Washington U of West Florida University of Houston Utah Valley State Utah Valley State University Virginia Tech Wentworth Institute of Technology Crafts of Western Michigan University Alfred Faculty of Arts and Crafts California East Carolina University Kutztown University Ohio Wesleyan University New Hampshire University University of Vermont, University of Vermont, Univ. of the Arts-Philadelphia, Virginia Commonwealth, Western Carolina U. Creative Writing 142

143Bard Barnard Bennington College Brandeis. Carnegie Mellon. Colby, ME Colorado State University Connecticut College Emerson Eugene Lang College Flagler College Goucher Hamilton Kenyon's Marlboro Moravian College Muhlenberg NYU Roger Williams University Salisbury University Sarah Lawrence Sewanee Skidmore Susquehanna. Taylor University - Fort Wayne (IN) U Miami University of New Hampshire University Wisconsin Madison Vassar Wake Forest Washington College Wesleyan Wheaton College (MA) Culinary Arts Schools, Four-Year Culinary Institute of America Hyde Park, NY Johnson and Wales, Providence, RI Kendall, Evanston, IL Lexington Womens College, Chicago Paul Smith's College, New York University of Nevada, Las Vegas Summer Dramatic Programs Interlochen Center for the Arts in Interlochen, MI. Carnegie-Mellon (PA)-intense, 6 weeks Syracuse University (NY). 143

144American Conservatory Theater (ACT) San Francisco. BU Theater School Chatauqua Institute London Academy of Performing Arts (Shakespeare - actors) Summer Theater Directory - summer stock. www.summertheater.com/directory.html Northwestern National High School Institute North Carolina School of the Arts Savannah School of Art and Design - Georgia Perry-Mansfield Performing Arts - Colorado - perry-mansfield.org Academic Programs OxBridge-- www.oxbridgeprograms. com.. American Conservatory Theater (ACT) Boston University, School of Theater Arts Carnegie-Mellon Summer Program Chautauqua Institute Circle in the Square Theater School New York Summer Theater Directory" Theater Directories, PO, Box 519, Dorset, VT 05251 802- 867 -2223 "Back Stage" Walnut Hill School in Natick, MA The American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York or California SECOND: BOOKS AND GUIDES Peterson's Professional Degree Programs in Visual and Performing Dramatics Magazine Carol Everett, Performing Arts College Guide (Arc, 1992) The Directory of Theater Training Programs Theater Works, Inc. PO Box 519 Dorset, Vermont 05251 802-867-2223 College Guide for Performing Arts Specialists (3rd Edition) Dance, Drama, Music by Carole J. Everett Arc, Thomson Learning Career Opportunities in Theater by Shelly Field England- Study at http://www.ucas.ac.uk/ http://www.britainusa.com/sections/index_nt1.asp?i=41009&d= 9 www.studyuk.hobsons.com. www.ucas.com www.studyintheuk.org www.britishcouncil.org/usa-education.htm American Intercontinental American International University British American College British American College London Huron Regent's College Richmond College in London Richmond U. (144

145 [email protected]St. Louis U. The American International University en Londres U. de Aberdeen). U. of St. Andrews University Richmond, Webster U. in St. Louis Webster University Equine Business Becker College Cazenovia College Colorado State University Cornell University (cría, nutrición, ciencias) Delaware Valley College, Doylestown, PA Franklin & Marshall (comportamiento animal y etología) Hollins College Johnson and Wales, Lake Erie College (Ohio), Midway College, Lexington, KY Mount Ida College en Newton, MA Ohio University, Athens Otterbein College (Ohio). Post University, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey Saint Andrews Presbyterian College en Laurinburg, NC SUNY Cobleskill Sweet Briar College The University of Louisville UMass, UNH, University of Findlay, OH University of Kentucky University of Louisville University of Maine University of Maryland University de Carolina del Sur ~ Aiken. Universidad de Vermont Virginia Intermont, Universidad William Woods Wilson College, PA http://www.horseschools.com Ingeniería ambiental - trabajo de energía solar: 145

146Bard College College of the Atlantic Hampshire College Northland College Oregon Institute of Technology (Oregon Renewable Energy Center) Sterling College (2 years) Unity College Vermont Technical College Exercise Physiology or Exercise Science Programs Arizona State University Barry University Jacksonville University The College of St. Scholastica in Duluth, MN Transylvania U in Lexington, KY University of Miami University of Utah Family Home Berea CollegeWright State Univ Guilford College Hamilton College Michigan State Univ Northern Illinois University Northern Michigan University Northwest College St. Mary-of -the-Woods, Indiana St. Paul's College at Farmville Univ. of Maine at University Park University of Southern Maine Wilson College Bachelor of Film Production - Literary Arts Colleges Allegheny Asbury College KY Bard Brandeis (seems to be mostly film studies, with only 4 courses BU CHapman Concordia University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada Drexel Emerson Hampshire College (MA) introductory techniques). 146

147Ithaca Loyola Marymount (CAlif) Lynn Univ FL Madonna University en Livonia, Michigan NYIT Pitzer RIT Sarah Lawrence Southern Illinois University en Carbondale Temple Univ Miami FL Univ of Iowa University of Tulsa USCalifornia 5 años BA/MBA Binghamton University Bryant College Claremont-McKenna Clark Dalhousie (Canadá) Universidad Dominicana, River Forest Universidad Drexel Universidad Fairfield Iona College Millsaps College Philadelphia Univ Rockford Salve Regina Spring Hill St. Bonaventure St Lawrence St Leo Texas Tech U Maine Union? Univ of Judaism Univ of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Wilkes University Willamette Fly-In Programs for Students of Color All Service Academies Amherst Amherst 147

148Bates Berea Bowdoin Carleton Claremont McKenna College Colby Colorado College Connecticut College (not sure) Cornell - Native American Dartmouth - Native American Davidson Denison Hamilton College Hood Illinois Wesleyan U Kenyon Lehigh Macalester Middlebury Mt Holyoke NYU Oberlin - Oberlin Scholars Program Western Pitzer Sewanee Smith Stanford Swarthmore Trinity Trinity College U of Chicago U of Denver Vassar Washington University Washington & Jefferson Wesleyan Whitman Willamette Golf Course Architecture Coastal Carolina University Edinburgh College of Art- Scotland, SUNY College of Agriculture and Technology at Cobleskill Univ. of Arkansas at Fayetteville University of Colorado at Colorado Springs Penn State - Main Campus www.gcsaa.org 148

149Personas con discapacidad auditiva: acomodación Adelphi University Arizona State Arizona, U of Binghamton.SUNY Brandeis Brigham Young Bryant BU Cal State Northridge Connecticut, U of Cornell Davidson (North Carolina) Denver, CC of Edinborough (Pa.) Flagler Flagler College Front Range CC (CO ) Gallaudet University Gardner-Webb Lenoir-Rhyne (NC) MacMurray College-Jacksonville Maryville (Tenn) Mt Aloysius Coll (PA) Muhlenberg College (PA) New Hampshire, U of Northeastern Notre Dame Oregon, U of Puget Sound Rochester Institute of Technology ( NY) Skidmore Southern Idaho, College of Stanford Syracuse Tennessee, U de la Universidad de Michigan Utah Vermont, U de Virginia Commonwealth Washington. U de Equitación/competencia Albion Alfred 149

150Amherst Asbury College Averett College Bennington Boston U. Bowling Green State Bucknell University Cal Poly Pomona Cal Poly San Luis Obispo Cal State Fresno Cazenovia College Centenary College Center College Clark University Colgate Colorado State Connecticut College Cornell Dartmouth Delaware Delaware Valley College Drew University Earlham Elon Emory Erskine Universidad Findlay Furman Gettysburg Goucher Hobart-William Smith Hollins College Holyoke Houghton College Illinois Wesleyan James Madison University Johnson and Wales Lafayette Lake Erie College Lawrence Louisville Loyola Nueva Orleans Mary Washington Merrimack Miami University of Ohio Middlebury Midway College Mt. Holyoke 150

151Instituto de Tecnología de Nueva York Northern Arizona Northwestern University Ohio State University Instituto Técnico Agrícola (título de 2 años) Ohio Wesleyan Otterbein College Pepperdine Randolph-Macon Randolph-Macon Women's College Redlands Rhodes Ripon Seton Hill Sewanee, University of the South Skidmore Southern Illinois University Southern Methodist St. Andrews St. Lawrence Stanford Stephens College Stonehill College SUNY Binghamton SUNY Cobbleskill Sweet Briar Texas State University Truman State University Tulane U Mass U of Vermont UC Davis University of Findlay University of New Hampshire University of Northern Michigan Virginia Intermont College Washington College William and Mary William Woods College Wilson College www.HorseSchools.com www.ihsa.com :http://equestrianstudies.rocky.edu/ http://gobulldogs.collegesports.com/sports/w-equest/fres-w-equest-body. html http://oregonstate.edu/groups/ihsa/ http://campusrecreation.ucdavis.edu/equestrian/team.html http://uoeq.tripod.com/ 151

152http://www.umwestern.edu/athletics/equestrian/ http://students.washington.edu/ihsa/ http://www.stablesdirectory.org/ocrsd.html http://www.colby-sawyer.edu /athletics/equestrian/ http://www.ihsa.com/group.asp?GroupID=3D3 Hospitality Cal-Poly Central Florida Conrad Hilton Hotel School (U-Houston) Cornell Deleware Florida International State of Florida J&W Kendall State of Michigan Denver Niagra Northern Arizona Northern Arizona University NYU Paul Smiths College Penn State Purdue Rochester Institute of Technology Rosen College Rutgers Syracuse UMass- Amherst University of Delaware UN-Las Vegas Washington State Wisconsin (Stout) ACPHA (Commission on Accreditation of Programs in Hotel Management) http ://www .acpha-cahm.org http://jht.sagepub.com/policies/terms.dtl Accepted IEP Diplomas Warren Wilson College (NC) Landmark Mitchell Dean NY Institute of Technology - VIP Program Leslie College - Threshold Program 152

153Riverview School College Internship Program Chapel Haven Vista Vocational and Life Skills Center Allen Institute Industrial Design Carleton U (in Ottawa, CAN) Cooper Union Iowa State Milwaukee Inst. Art and Design Olin Parsons + New School (combined degree) Pratt Institute RISD + Brown (combines studies in design and science/ingr) Texas State-San Marcos U Kansas U Illinois - Urbana and Chicago U Michigan U Wisconsin-Stout U Miami U Louisiana /Lafayette Wentworth College of Technology Irish Programs Trinity College, Dublin (has a program for American students) University at Cork, County Cork Colgate Irish Studies: Boston College Catholic University, Washington, DC Fairfield University Harvard King's College, Wilkes-Barre, PA Loyola Marymount University, Los Angeles Loyola University, Chicago Southern Illinois University at Carbondale Stonehill College Stonehill College, MA Trinity University, Dublin U Mass Boston, Stonehill, MA University College Cork, Cork, Ireland-www.ucc.ie University College, Dublin 153

154University of Aberdeen, Scotland-www.abdn.ac.uk University of Arizona University of Missouri in St. Louis University of Notre Dame-http://www.nd.edu/~irishstu/ University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Jazz Studies University of Belmont in Nashville; Bennington College Bowling Green State University; Brevard College Cal St-Fullerton California State University, Bakersfield Carnegie Mellon University; Columbia University, Chicago; DePaul University in Chicago Drexel University; PENNSYLVANIA; Eastman (New York) Eastman School of Music; George Mason International University of Florida Hampshire Indiana University; Jacksonville U Kent State Lawrence University Loyola New Orleans Manhattanville College, Buy NY; Moravian College Naropa University New School University New York University University of North Carolina at Greensboro North Central College in Illinois Oberlin College; Peabody Institute of Music; Portland State University; Seton Hill University SUNY Stony Brook University Syracuse; the Cleveland Institute of Music; The University of Idaho The University of Iowa U Indiana U Miami U of Denver UCLA 154

155University of North Texas University of Cincinnati in Hartford, CT; University of Massachusetts, Lowell. University of Memphis University of Michigan; University of New Haven (CT); University of New Orleans University of Northern Colorado; University of Puget Sound University of the Pacific USC William Paterson U. Junior Colleges with Dorms Alabama Concordia College Calhoun Community College James H Faulkner State Community College Community College Gadsden State Community College Northwest-Shoals Community College of the Air Force Community College Southern Union State Community University Walker College Snead State Community College Community College-Muscle Shoals Bevill State Marion Military Institute Jefferson Davis Alaska Prince William Sound Community College University of Alaska Southwest University of Alaska-Anchorage College of Career & Voc Ed Arizona Yavapai College Arizona Western College Dine College Cochise College Central Arizona College Eastern Arizona College Northland Pioneer College Arkansas Arkansas State University- Beebe Southern Arkansas University- Technical Shorter College University of Arkansas-Little Rock 155

156California Bakersfield College (Bakersfield,) Brooks College (Long Beach, private) Butte College (Orville) Chabot College College of the Redwoods (Eureka) College of the Siskiyous (Weed) Columbia College (Columbia) D-Q University (Davis) Feather River College ( Quincy) Kings River CC (Reedly) Lassen College (Susanville) Marymount (Palos Verdes) (private) Menlo College (Atherton, private) Reedley College San Diego Mesa (nr. San Diego State) Santa Rosa JC (Santa Rosa) City of Santa Barbara University (limited) Shasta College (reading) Sierra College (Rocklin) Taft College (Taft) West Hills College (Coalinga) Youba College (Maryville) Colorado Colorado Northwestern Community College Trinity State Junior College Colorado Mountain College Otero Junior College Lamar Community College Northeastern Junior University Connecticut Mitchell College, New London Briarwood College Hillyer College at Hartord University Florida Palm Beach Community College Lake City Community College Florida College South Florida Community College Chipola Junior College International Fine Arts College Georgia Middle Georgia College Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College 156

157Andrew College Truett-McConnell College North Georgia Technical Institute Georgia Military College Bauder College South Georgia College Gordon College Young Harris College Hawaii Maui Community College Idaho North Idaho College College of Southern Idaho Boise State University Facultad de tecnología Ricks College Illinois Lexington Inst of Hospitality Careers Springfield Universidad en Illinois Lincoln College Indiana Vincennes University Holy Cross College Iowa Iowa Valley Community College District Northwest Iowa Community College Western Iowa Tech Community College Iowa Western Community College Indian Hills Community College Southeastern Community College Waldorf College American Institute of Business North Iowa Area Community College Southwestern Community Universidad Iowa Lakes Community College Iowa Central Community College Kansas Barton County Community College Hesston College Cowley County Community College Central College Independence Community College Fort Scott Community College Garden City Community College 157

158Hutchinson Community College Cloud County Community College Haskell Indian Nations Univ Neosho County Community College Dodge City Community College Coffeyville Community College Washburn University-School of Applied Studies College Seward County Community College Labette Community College Highland Community College Butler County Community College Pratt Community College Allen County Community College Colby Community College Kentucky St Catharine College Western Kentucky University Lexington Community College Hazard Community College Maine Southern Maine Technical College Eastern Maine Technical College Central Maine Technical College Washington County Technical College Northern Maine Technical College Central Maine Medical Center Escuela de enfermería Maryland Garrett Community College Baltimore International Universidad Allegheny College Massachusetts Newbury College Bay State College Fisher College Dean College Becker College, Worcester y Leicester Michigan North Central Michigan College Alpena Community College Bay Mills Community College Suomi College Northwestern Michigan College Bay de Noc Community College Minnesota Bethany Lutheran College Laurentian Community and Technical College Distrito Colegio Comunitario Mesabi Colegio Comunitario Rainy River 158

159Mississippi Meridian Community College Colegio Comunitario Copiah-Lincoln Northwest Mississippi Community College Wood College Hinds Community College Southwest Mississippi Community College Itawamba Community College East Mississippi Community College Mary Holmes College Holmes Community College Pearl River Community College Coahoma Community College Mississippi Delta Community College Jones County Junior College East Central Community College Pearl River Community College - Forrest County Mississippi Gulf Coast Community College Northeast Mississippi Community College Missouri North Central Missouri College Cottey College Crowder College Wentworth Military Academy Southwest Missouri State University Moberly Area Community College Kemper Military School and College Montana Miles Community College Dawson Colegio Comunitario Colegio de Tecnología- Universidad de Montana Nebraska Colegio Comunitario Central McCook Community College Colegio Comunitario del Noreste Colegio Comunitario del Sudeste Colegio Comunitario del Oeste Área de Nebraska Colegio de Agricultura Técnica-U de Nebraska Nevada Deep Springs College New Hampshire Instituto Técnico de New Hampshire White Pines College 159

160Hesser College McIntosh College New Jersey Berkeley College New Mexico Military Institute of New Mexico Southwestern Indian Polytechnic Institute Northern New Mexico Community College American Indian Arts Institute Eastern New Mexico University Roswell New Mexico Junior College New Mexico State University - Dona Ana New York SUNY College of Agriculture & Technology Mater Dei College Paul Smith's College SUNY Agricultural & Technical College-Morrisville SUNY College of Technology- Delhi SUNY College of Technology- Alfred Berkley College SUNY College of Technology - Farmingdale SUNY College of Technology- Canton Mohawk Valley Community College Fashion Institute of Technology Sage Junior College of Albany College of Aeronautics Clinton CC Finger Lakes CC Genesee CC Herkimer CC Mohawk Valley CC Monroe CC North Country CC Onondaga CC Sullivan County CC Tompkins-Cortland CC North Carolina Stanly Community College Saint Mary's College Louisburg College North Dakota University of North Dakota- Lake Region University of North Dakota- Williston North Dakota State University- Bottineau United Tribes Technical College North Dakota State College of Science Bismarck State College 160

161Ohio University of Akron-Community and Technical College Rio Grande Community College Kettering College of Medical Arts University of Toledo- Community and Technical College Ohio State University-Ag Technical Institute University of Cincinnati- University College Mercy College of Northwest Ohio Northwestern College Hocking Technical College Oklahoma Northern Oklahoma College Rogers State College Eastern Oklahoma State College Carl Albert State College Bacone College Oklahoma State University- Okmulgee Northeastern Oklahoma A & M College Murray State College Southwestern Oklahoma State University-Sayre Oregon Southwestern Oregon Community College Treasure Valley Community College Central Oregon Community College Columbia Gorge Community College Pensilvania Harcum College Central Pennsylvania Business School Thaddeus Stevens State School of Technology Northampton County Area Community College Valley Forge Military College Manor College Carolina del Sur Dinamarca Technical College Spartanburg Methodist College Tennessee Hiwassee College John A Gupton College Martin Methodist College Texas Trinity Valley Community College Amarillo College Southwest Texas Junior College Laredo Community College Bee County College Angelina College Grayson County Junior College South Plains College 161

162Tyler Junior College Odessa College Jacksonville College Frank Phillips College Temple College Blinn College Southwestern Christian College Lon Morris College Hill College Central Texas College Western Texas College Ranger Junior College Northeast Texas Community College Miss Wade's Fashion Merchandising College Howard County Junior College District North Central Texas College Panola Universidad Navarro College Wharton County Junior College Texas State Technical College- Waco/Marshall Texas State Technical College- Harlingen Paris Junior College Clarendon College Kilgore College Vernon Regional Junior College Cisco Junior College Weatherford College Utah College of Eastern Utah Dixie College Latter-Day Saints Business College Snow College Vermont Landmark College Sterling College Vermont Technical College Virginia Southern Virginia College Community Hospital Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud Washington Yakima Valley Community College Big Bend Community College Peninsula College Instituto de Arte de Seattle Edmonds Community College Wenatchee Valley College 162

163West Virginia Potomac State College Shepherd College-Community College Division Fairmont State College West Virginia Institute of Technology Glenville State College- Community & Technical College Marshall University Community and Technical College West Virginia State College- Community & Technical College Wisconsin Northcentral Technical College Western Wisconsin Technical College Wyoming Eastern Wyoming College Laramie County Community College Western Wyoming Community College Central Wyoming College Sheridan College Northwest College Casper College Kosher Kitchens Estadounidense Estado de Arizona Barnard Boston U Brandeis Brown Chicago Clark Columbia Cornell Dartmouth Delaware DePaul Duke Emery Farleigh Dickinson George Washington Goucher Hartford Harvard Indiana Kansas Maryland Miami 163

164Michigan MIT Northwestern NYU Oberlin Ohio State Penn Princeton Rochester Rutgers Stern SUNYBinghamtom Syracuse Touro Tufts Tulane U Conn U Maryland U Michigan U Pennsylvania UCLA Union (NY) University of Delaware University of Hartford University of Judaism Wash U. Wesleyan Wisconsin-Madison Yale Yeshiva Landscape Architecture Alfred State College Auburn University Ball State University Cal Poly Pomona Colorado State Fort Collins Iowa State University Kansas State Louisiana State University Michigan State University Michigan State University Ohio State University Penn State Philadelphia University Purdue University RISD 164

165Rutgers University Southern Illinois University Carbondale Texas A&M Texas Tech UMass Amherst University of Arkansas University of Delaware University of Florida University of Georgia University of Idaho University of Illinois University of Maryland University of Minnesota University of Nebraska University of Tennessee Knoxville University of Wisconsin Madison West Virginia University LD/weak student: 2+2 programs at VT College of the Siskiyous-CA Concordia College-NY Curry College-MA CW Post-NY Dean College-MA Endicott-MA Johnson & Whales-RI Landmark College-VT Lesley -MA Lincoln College -IL Long Island U-NY Louisburg College-NC Lynn U-FL/NY (Allen Institute will be its new name when the NY campus moves to Mass. Maritime-MA Mitchell College-CT Mount Ida-MA Rider -NJ Rio Grande U- OH Shawnee State-OH Southern Vermont College Springfield College-MA St. Thomas Aquinas-NY Thompson School at UNH U of Hartford-CT U. Bridgeport-CT U. Cincinnati-College of Applied Sciences Warren Wilson College- . NC 165

166LD Programs and/or Proactive Support Structures Curry College (PALS Program) George Mason University (New Century College) Landmark College Lynn University Northern Arizona University University of Arizona (SALT program) University of Hartford (Hillyer College) West Virginia Wesleyan College Western New England College programs LD American (DC) Beacon (FL) Curry (MA) Dean (MA) Landmark (VT) 2 years Lynn (FL) Mitchell (CT) U. Arizona - SALT Program (AZ) U. Denver (CO) Westminster ( MO) Also suggested: Adelphi (NY) Allen Institute - Center for Innovative Learning (CT) Beloit (WI) Boston U. (MA) Brenau University - Learning Center (GA) women's college Clarke U. (MA) Concordia (MN). ) Earlham (IN) Eastern New Mexico University (NM) Endicott (MA) Fairleigh Dickinson (NJ) Guilford (NC) Harvey Mudd (CA) Hofstra (NY) Johnson & Wales (RI) Long Island University - C.W. Post Campus (NY) Lesley U - Thershold Program (MA) Lincoln College (IL) Louisburg College (NC) 2 years Manhattanville (NY)

167Massachusetts Maritime Academy (MA) Mercyhurst (PA) Mount Ida (MA) Muskingum (OH) New Mexico State University (NM) Northeastern U (MA) Oberlin (OH) Rider (NJ) Springfiled (MA) Saint Thomas Acquinas (NY). ) Shawnee State (OH) Southern Vermont (VT) U. Bridgeport (CT) U. Conn (CT) U. Hartford (CT) U. Iowa (IA) U. New Hampshire - Thompson School (NH) 2 years U. Rhode Island ( RI) U. Toledo (OH) Warren Wilson (NC) West Virginia Wesleyan (WV) Widener (PA) Linguistics Boston College Brandeis Carleton College Carleton University (Canada) Hampshire Lawrence (WI), Macalester Miami University (OH) Pitzer Pomona, Reed College, U Mass Amherst University of Oregon University of Rochester University of Southern Maine Lighting Cal Arts Columbia College and Chicago Cornish DePaul and Chicago King's College 167

168Marymount Manhattan College Savannah College of Art and Design Southern Illinois University Carbondale The College of Santa Fe The Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts, Inglaterra Wagner College Marching Bands Arkansas Boston College Boston University Buffalo College of the Holy Cross CSU Fresno Delaware Gettysburg College Holly Cross (Mass ) Iowa James Madison Lehigh Lehigh University Maine Miami University (Ohio) Michigan State Moravian College New Hampshire Norwich University - Vermont Notre Dame Notre Dame Ohio State Ohio University Penn State Pitt Sacred Heart University - CT Shepherd St. Joseph's (Indiana) Stanford University Syracuse UC Davis UConn U-Mass (Amherst) Universidad de Delaware Universidad de Michigan Universidad de Michigan - Ann Arbor Universidad de Washington USC Virginia Tech 168

169Virginia Tech Wisconsin Website listing college marching bands from around the country: http://camb.ucdavis.edu/camb/college.html Marine Science Jacksonville University Old Dominion University UNC - Wilmington College of Charleston Coastal Carolina University Texas A&M at Galveston and Corpus Christi University of South Carolina at Columbia California State University System Massachusetts Maritime Academy University of West Florida Gulf Coast University of West Florida Florida Institute of Technology at Melbourne Eckerd College University of Alaska Southeast in Juneau Hawaii Pacific U. Univ. of Rhode Island State of Stockton in NJ Moot Court Programs Boston College Cornell Dartmouth Hamilton Lewis U Northwestern Rhodes College Rice SMU Syracuse U. of Chicago (offers a Bachelor of Laws, Letters and Society) U of Iowa U. of Michigan U. of Redlands U. of Richmond UCI UCLA UCSB UCSC 169

170USC Villanova Wellesley Escuelas multimedia: Bradley U. Cerro Coso (California) DePaul Univ. DigiPen (Washington) Ex'pression Center for New Media (Calif.) Full Sail (Fla.) George Mason Hampshire Loyola Marymount Sierra Nevada College So. Universidad de Illinois U of Oregon UCLA USC Música y/o tecnología musical. American University Arizona Art Institute of Seattle Arts, University of Ball State - IN Bellarmine University - KY Belmont en Nashville Berklee School of Music Boston University Cal State - Chico Cal State - Dominguez Hills Carnegie Mellon Centenary College - NJ Clemson Cleveland Institute of Music Cogswell College - California College of Santa Fe - NM College of St Rose - NY Columbia College en Chicago Connecticut, U de la Universidad DePaul - Chicago Delaware, U. de Denver, U. de la Universidad Drexel Duquesne 170

171Elmhurst College Emerson College Evergreen State Expression Center of New Media - Emeryville, CA Five Towns Full Sail Hartford Indian University (very competitive, needs calculus and physics in HS) Ithaca Jacksonville University - FL Kent State LaGrange College Lebanon Valley - PA Recording workshop of Los Angeles Lowell Loyola - New Orleans Loyola Marymount in LA Massachusetts Communication College (also known as Mass Comm) Memphis State Mercy College - NY Michigan Middle Tennessee State University MusicTech in Minneapolis, MN affiliated with Augsburg College NC State New England College of Broadcasting New Haven Northeastern University Northern Illinois Northern Virginia Community College Loudon Campus NYU Oberlin Ohio University Peabody - in conjunction with Johns Hopkins Point Park - PA Potsdam SAE (School of Audio Engineering) Sarah Lawrence SMU Sound Master Recording Engineering School - Hollywood, CA South Carolina Southern Illinois University - Carbondale Southwest Texas State University SUNY Fredonia Syracuse University Tampa The Liverpool Institute for Performing Arts (www.lipa.ac.uk) U of Massachusetts - Lowell U of Oregon 171

172U of Puget Sound UCLA University of California - Santa Barbara University of Louisiana - Lafayette University of Miami University of Michigan University of New Haven - CT University of North Carolina - Asheville USC Webster William Patterson (programa de 4 años) Teatro musical y/o gospel coro. Allegheny College Binghamton University Boston College Cal State Fullerton Carnegie Mellon Catawba College Catholic University Cental College- IA Colgate College of William and Mary Drake University Duke Elmhurst College Elon University Franklin Pierce College Furman University George Mason University Georgetown Illinois Wesleyan Indiana University Ithaca Jacksonville University James Madison Universidad Loras Dubuque Luther Decora Mary Washington College Mercyhurst College Michigan NYU Ohio Wesleyan Oregon Penn State Pomona Purchase College (SUNY) 172

173Rhodes College Simpson Indianola St. Mary's- Moraga St. Olaf's College Syracuse Trinity College-CT UC Riverside University of Evansville University of Notre Dame de Namur University of Redlands University of Rochester-Eastman School of Music Vanderbilt Wilkes University Williamette Programas de teatro musical de Yale Adelphi Univ American Univ Baldwin Wallace Bennington Bethel Coll Conservatorio de Boston Universidad de Boston Bowling Green State University (OH) Bradley Univ Cal Arts Cal State Fullerton Carnegie Mellon Universidad Católica Chapman Cincinnati Conser. of Music College of Santa Fe College of Wooster Columbia College (IL) DePaul DeSales Drew Elon Emerson Fordham FSU George Mason Guilford Hampshire Heidelberg 173

174Indiana University Ithaca Jacksonville U Johns Hopkins--Peabody Conservatory Kent State University (OH) Kenyon MA College of Liberal Arts Manhattan School of Music Manhattanville Marymount Manhattan Missouri State Montclair State Muhlenberg Nazareth Northwestern NYU Oberlin Ohio State Ohio U University of the city of Oklahoma Otterbein Penn State Point Park Rockford College Roosevelt Univ Russell Sage Sarah Lawrence Savannah College of Art and Design Skidmore SMU Southern Ill. University - Carbondale Southwestern University Olaf Stephens College SUNY Fredonia (NY) SUNY Purchase Susquehanna Syracuse Trinity, CT Tufts U Buffalo U Cincinnati U Hartford U Michigan U of Cincinnati U of Miami U of Southern Maine U of the Arts 174

175U Oklahoma UCLA University of Michigan University of the Arts USC Vassar Wagner Wagner Coll. Webster University Wesleyan Westminster Choir College (part of Rider University) Wilkes Wright State University Yale Nanoscience Ball State U, IN Boston University Columbia Cornell University George Mason Georgia Tech Harvard Illinois Institute of Tech University Johns Hopkins Northern Illinois University Northwestern Penn State Purdue Rice University RPI Stanford U Illinois - Urbana Champaign UC Berkeley UChicago UCSB UMichigan Union College Yale Observatories- Schools with Agnes Scott College at Atlanta Air Force Academy. Alfred University of the State of New York Augustana College - Rock Island IL Boston University 175

176Colgate University - Hamilton NY Colorado College Connecticut College has a major in Astrophysics Dartmouth DePauw University. Earlham College - Richmond IN George Mason Georgetown Gettysburg Grinnell College in Iowa Guilford College Lewis and Clark Northwestern University - Evanston IL Oberlin Pomona College Smith College Swarthmore College in Pennsylvania. Trinity College, San Antonio, TX UC Berkeley University of Arizona in Tucson University of Chicago - Chicago IL University of CO - Boulder CO University of Hawaii in Hilo University of Michigan University of New Mexico - Albuquerque, NM University of Oregon. http://pmo-sun.uoregon.edu/ University of Puget Sound University of Toledo University of Texas at Austin. They have the McDonald Observatory. University of Wisconsin, Madison University of Valparaiso Vassar Wellesley College Wesleyan University in Connecticut Performing Arts American Academy of Dramatic Arts (Manhattan and Hollywood campuses) AMDA (NY and CA) Bard Baldwin-Wallace Boston University California Institute of the Arts ( founded by Walt Disney) Carnegie Mellon Catholic University College of Santa Fe Columbia College DePaul 176

177Drew Univ. Emerson Fordam (Lincoln Center Campus) Goucher Guthrie Theater Actors Training Program, University of Minnesota Ithaca James Madison Julliard School Marymount Manhattan Manhattanville Mason Gross College of Rutgers Millikin Univ. National Council for Dramatic Training, (NCDT) -UK New York Film Academy NYU (Tisch School of the Arts) North Carolina School of the Arts Northwestern Oberlin Pace Univ. Roosevelt University Skidmore Southern Methodist University. Southwestern College St. Olaf Strasberg Theater Institute SUNY Buys Syracuse Univ. of the University of Cincinnati. from the University of Hartford. from the University of Iowa. from the University of Miami. from the University of Michigan. from the University of Rochester. Southern California Wagner (mainly musical theater) Washington and Jefferson PG year Cushing, Hargrove Military Academy in Chatham VA Kent Hill Kimball Union, Northfield Mt. Hermon Phelps School in Malvern, PA Salisbury School Trinity Pawling and Berkshire School 177

178PG for LD Berkshire School, Sheffield, MA (413) 229-1253 Brandon Hall School, Atlanta, GA - resid. only for and mostly boys - Brehm Preparatory School, Carbondale, IL (618) 457-0371 Brenau Academy, Gainesville, GA - only for girls - (770) 534-6140 Brewster Academy, Wolfeboro, NH (800) 842-9961 or (603) ) 569-7200 Bridgton Academy, North Bridgton ME (207) - only for children with postgraduate - Chapel Hill Chauncy Hall School, Waltham, MA (781) 894-2644 Cheshire Academy, Cheshire, CT (203) 272- 5396 Cushing Academy, Ashburnham, MA (978) 827-7300 Darrow School, New Lebanon, NY (518) 794-6006 Fryeburg Academy, Fryeburg, ME (207) 935-2001 Gould Academy, Bethel, ME (207) 824-7700 Grier School, Tyrone , PA - Girls Only - (814) 684-3000 Hebron Academy, Hebron, ME (888) 432-7664 or (207) 966-2100 X 225 Kents Hill School, Kents Hill, ME (207) 685 -4914 Kildonan School, Amenia, NY (914) 373-8111 Knox School, St. Louis. James, NY (516) 584-5500 La Lumiere School, La Porte, IN (219) 326-7450 Landmark School, Prides Crossing, MA (978) 927-4440 Maine Central Institute, Pittsfield, ME (207) 487-3355 Maplebrook School, Amenia, NY (914) 373-9511 Marvelwood School, Kent, CT (860) 927-0047 Missouri Military Academy, Mexico, MO - solo kids - (888 ) 564-6662, New Hampton School, New Hampton, NH ( 603) 744-5401 Perkiomen School, Pennsburg, PA (215) 679-9511 Pine Ridge School, Williston, VT (802) 434-2161 Riverview School, Cape Cod, MA Program - GROW (508) 888-0489 St. Thomas More School , Oakdale, CT (860) 859-1900 Solebury School, New Hope, PA (215) 862-5261 South Kent School, South Kent, CT - only children - ( 860) 927-3 Johnsbury Academy, St. Johnsbury Academy. Johnsbury, VT (802) 748-8171 The Ethel Walker School, Simsbury, CT - Girls Only - (860) 658-4467 The Gow School, South Wales, NY - Boys Only - (800) 274-0138 or (716). ) The Hun School, Blairstown, NJ (800) 462-5247 or (908) 362-7982 The Oxford Academy, Westbrook, CT - boys only - (860) 399-6247 The Phelps School, Malvern, PA - boys only - (610) 644-1754 The Vanguard School, Lake Wales, FL (941) 676-8297 Tilton School, Tilton, NH (603) 286-1733 Trinity-Pawling School, Pawling, NY - single children - (914) 855-4825 Vermont Academy, Saxtons River, VT (800) 560-1876 or (802) 869-6200 West Nottingham Academy, Colora, MD (410) 658-5556 X 209 White Mountain School, Bethlehem, NH (800) 545-7813 or ( 603) Winchendon School, Winchendon, MA (800) 622-1119 Pharm D 178 guaranteed admission programs

179Albany College - Albany Butler - Indianapolis Drake - Des Moines Duquesne - Pittsburgh Northeastern University Boston Rutgers-Piscataway Saint Louis College of Pharmacy-St. Louis U of Connecticut - Storrs U of Missouri - Kansas City U of Rhode Island - Kingston University of the Pacific Stockton University of the Sciences - Philadelphia Wilkes University - Wilkes-Barre Xavier - New Orleans Photography Lesser Known Schools Bradley (IL) Cazenovia (NY). ) ) College of Santa Fe (NM) Kent State (OH) Mills (CA) Naropa (CO) - multiple courses in the photography program in visual arts Ohio U (OH) Purchase (NY) RIT (NY) Salve Regina (RI ) SCAD ( GA) Scripps (CA) Shepherd U U of Houston (TX) U of Oregon (OR) Virginia Commonwealth (VA) Photojournalism: Abilene Christian Univ. (Texas) Ball State Univ. (Indiana) Bard College Boston University Hampshire College Indiana University Kent State University (Ohio) New York University- Tish School of the Arts The Gallation School Northeast Louisiana Univ. 179

180Ohio University Rochester Institute of Technology Southern Illinois University. -Carbondale St. Louis St. Andrew's College (Laurenburg, NC) Syracuse Univ. Virginia Common University. (Richmond) Western Kentucky University. Winona State University. (Minnesota) UK universities visit: www.ucas.com Croydon College Swansea Institute of Higher Ed. University of Central Lancashire University. of the University of the Vale of Sunderland. Students with Physical Disabilities Carnegie Mellon U Dartmouth College Edinboro U of Pennsylvania Hofstra U Lynn U Marist College Radford U Southern Illinois U-Carbondale Southwest Missouri State U St. Louis University. Andrews Presbyterian College U of Alabama (Tuscaloosa) U of Delaware U of Houston U of Illinois- Urbana-Champaign U of Miami U of the South U of Southern California Western Connecticut State U Willamette U Wright State U Physics Caltech George Washington Harvey Mudd Lafayette College Old Dominion Princeton Rice Swarthmore 180

181University of Illinois University of Maryland, College Park University of Rochester University of Tulsa Washington College Robotics Cal Tech Carnegie Mellon Case Western Reserve Conneticut College Cornell Daniel Webster - NH George Mason Harvey Mudd John Hopkins LeHigh MIT Northern Michigan University Oakland (MI) Community College Rensselaer Polytechnic Rice RIT Rose Hulman South Dakota School of Mines Stanford Tufts U of Central Florida U. Illinois, Urbana U. Iowa U of Maryland U of Massachussetts U. Michigan U. Rochester U of Utah U of Washington UC Berkeley USC Wilkes Worcester Polytech Institute Navigation programs BC Bowdoin Brandeis 181

182Brown BU College of Charleston Connecticut College Eckerd Georgetown Hobart Holy Cross Mass. Old Dominion Maritime Academy Roger Williams Rollins Salve Regina St. Mary's. Mary's, Maryland (3 mentions) Texas A&M Galveston Tufts Screenplay Bard Bennington Chapman College of Santa Fe Emerson Hawaii Kenyon (by creativity writing) LMU North Carolina School of the Arts Syracuse Tulsa U of Miami Wisconsin Snowboard Teams Alaska Pacific University Albertson College Clark College Green Mountain College Montana State - both Bozeman and Billings Montana Tech Northern Michigan University Sierra Nevada College University of Alaska University of Colorado at Boulder University of Idaho University of Montana

183Whitman College Sports Management Arizona State University Auburn Cazenovia College Central Florida Clemson College of Charleston Delaware Denver East Carolina Elon Flager Florida State Forida Guilford High Point Indiana Ithaca College Lynchburg Lynn Miami (FL) Miami (OH) Michigan NC State Niagara University NYU Ohio University Old Dominion OSU Richmond Rutgers Seton Hall Shepherd University Springfield College, MA Stetson Syracuse TCU Temple Tennessee Texas A&M Towson U Mass at Amhert U. of Georgia U. of Kansas 183

184U. of Oregon U. of South Carlina U. of Tampa UNC UNC/Wilmington Valparaiso University (IA) West Carolina state schools have small living/learning programs or residential universities. Arizona State Cal State Fullerton Cal State Long Beach George Mason University Indiana U Miami of Ohio Michigan State Millersville University Northern Illinois Ohio State San Diego State South West Texas State Texas Tech UC Santa Cruz and San Diego University of Arizona University of Colorado-Boulder University of Connecticut University of Delaware University of Georgia University of Hawaii-Manoa University of Illinois--Urbana Champagne University of Iowa University of Louisiana University of Massachusetts-Amherst University of Michigan University of Minnesota University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill University of Oregon University of Vermont University of Wisconsin-Madison Washington State Western Washington University 7-year medical programs Combined college/MD programs Wing: University of Alabama, Univ. of S. Alabama; 184

185California: UC Riverside; Connection: UConn; DC: George Washington University; Howard University; Florida: U Florida, U Miami; Illinois: Finch/Chicago/IIT, Northwestern, U of Illinois at Chicago; Mass: Boston U; Michigan: Michigan State; Miss: U Missouri (Columbia and Kansas City); NJ: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Rutgers; NY: Brooklyn College/SUNY Downstate, NYU, Rennselaer, Siena College, CUNY, SUNY StonyBrook, SUNY Upstate, Union College, U Rochester; Ohio: Case Western Reserve, northeast Ohio universities, Ohio state, U Cincinnati Penn: Lehigh, Penn State RI: Brown Tenn: E Tenn State, Fisk Tex: Rice, Texas A&M Vir: E Virginia Med School, Virginia Commonwealth Wisc : U Wisc 7 years of medicine: Boston U Brown U Case Western Reserve U Creighton U Drexel U East Tennessee State U Fisk U with Meharry Medical College Gannon U with Medical College of Penn George Washington U Hahnemann U with Medical College of Penn - program of 6 years Howard U Illinois Institute of Technology with Chicago Medical School Johns Hopkins U Lehigh U with Medical College of Penn Louisiana State U - New Orleans and Shreveport Miami U (FL) - 6 and 7 year programs Michigan State U Missouri U - Columbia and Kansas City New York U Northeastern Ohio Universities School of Medicine - 6-year program Northwestern U Ohio State U Old Dominion U with Eastern Virginia Medical School Penn Sate U with Jefferson Medical Rensselaer with Albany Medical College - 6-year program 185

186Rice U with Baylor College of Medicine Rochester U Siena College with Albany Medical College Sophie Davis School with CUNY SUNY - Brooklyn College and Stonybrook Tulane U U California Riverside and U Southern California U of UCLA U of Alabama U of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey U of Pittsburgh U of S. Alabama Union College con Albany Medical College Villanova U con Medical College of Penn Virginia Commonwealth U-Richmond Washington U-St. St. Louis Wisconsin U - Madison Sound Recording www.finearts.swt.edu/music/srt.html y http://asa.aip.org/index.html y http://www.aes.org/education/ American University Arizona Bellarmine University - KY Belmont in Nashville Berklee School of Music Boston University Cal State - Chico Cal State - Dominguez Hills Carnegie Mellon Centenary College - NJ Clemson Cleveland Institute of Music Cogswell College - California College of Santa Fe - NM College of St Rose - NY Columbia College in Chicago Connecticut, U of DePaul University - Chicago Delaware Denver University Drexel Duquesne 186

187Elmhurst College Emerson College Evergreen State Expression Center of New Media - Emeryville, CA Five Towns Full Sail Hartford Indian University (very competitive, needs calculus and physics in HS) Ithaca Jacksonville University - FL Kent State LaGrange College Lebanon Valley - PA Recording workshop of Los Angeles Lowell Loyola - New Orleans Loyola Marymount in LA Massachusetts Communication College (also known as Mass Comm) Memphis State Mercy College - NY Michigan Middle Tennessee State University MusicTech in Minneapolis, MN affiliated with Augsburg College NC State New England College of Broadcasting New Haven Northeastern University Northern Illinois Northern Virginia Community College Loudon Campus NYU Oberlin Ohio University Peabody - in conjunction with Johns Hopkins Point Park - PA Potsdam SAE (School of Audio Engineering) Sarah Lawrence Shenandoah Univ. SMU Sound Master Recording Engineering School - Hollywood, CA South Carolina Southern Illinois University - Carbondale Southwest Texas State University SUNY Fredonia Syracuse University Tampa The Liberpool Institute for Performing Arts (www.lipa.ac.uk) U of Massachusetts - Lowell

188U of Oregon U of Puget Sound UCLA University of California - Santa Barbara University of Hartford University of Louisiana - Lafayette University of Miami University of Michigan University of New Haven - CT University of North Carolina Ashville University of Rochester University of the Arts - Philadelphia USC Webster William Patterson (4-year program) Sound and Recording Technology: 2-year programs Art Institute in Seattle, Washington (1-800-275-2471,[email protected]) Cogswell College in California Expression Center for New Media in Emeryville, CA (510-654-2934) Five Towns College on Long Island (Dix Hills, LI, NY) Full Sail, Orlando, FL Massachusetts Communication College) Northern Virginia Community College, Loudon Campus (www.nv.cc.va.us) University of New Haven, West Haven, CT William Patterson University of the Arts in Philadelphia in New Jersey (4-year program) Space sciences or planetary geology. Arizona State Boston Brown University Caltech Cornell University FIT Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA MIT Rice University of Arizona University of Washington University in St. Louis York University in Toronto summer space camp at the University of Alabama. Special Education Students, Schools for the Allen Institute for Innovative Learning Center Hebron, CT 188

189Beloit Berkshire Internship Center Boston U. Brenau University's Learning Center NMSU Clarke U. College Experiencia de vida en Davie, FL Community College cerca de casa Curry College Dynamy Earlham ENMU Fairleigh Dickinson Guilford Harvey Mudd Ithaca College Landmark Lasell - Lesley U. Thershold Program Louisburg College Massachusetts Academia Marítima Mitchell Nuevos Estilos de Vida Northeastern U Northern Arizona University Oberlin Southwestern University en Georgetown, TX - . U. Conn U. New Hampshire U. de Denver Univ. de Delaware Universidad de Puget Sound West Virginia Wesleyan Sports Broadcasting American Arizona State Asbury B.U., Barry Butler California U. (Penn.) Calvin Champlain Chapman DePauw Dowling Duke 189

190Elon Emerson, Flagler Fordham George Mason George Washington Heidelberg Hofstra Indiana U. Iowa State Ithaca, Marietta Marist, Marquette McDaniel Missouri Murray State Noreste, Noroeste, NYU Ohio U., Otterbein Penn State, Quinnipiac, Ryerson Shepherd, St. Bonaventure Syracuse Temple Texas Christian U. Alabama U. Florida central U. Dayton U. Florida U. Georgia U. Iowa U. Lousiana at Lafayette U. Maryland U. Miami U. Miami, U. Montana U. Oregón U. Florida del sur U. Tampa U. Universidad de Texas, Wisconsin UNC - Chapel Hill USC, 190

191Sports Management/ Marketing http://www.nassm.org American University Barry U Bay St. Louis. C. Belmont Abbey Bowling Green, OH Good View University Castleton State, VT Colby-Sawyer, NH College of Saint Rose, NY College of NJ Elon C. Flagler College, FL Florida South Florida State Franklin Pierce Col, NH Guilford College , NC Indiana State University of Indiana Ithaca College, NY James Madison (VA) Lasalle C. Lock Haven, PA Lynchburg, VA Lynn, FL Marietta(OH) Marshall University (VA) Mercyhurst College Miami (OH) Mount Olive College, NC Niagra C. Nichols (MA) Bus Admin Northeastern, NEW MA. Ohio Univ Pfeiffer Univ, NC Point Park C. Quincy C. Radford University (VA) Robert Morris College, PA Sacred Heart University, CT St. Leo Univ, FL St. Mary's Col, CA Samford C. Seton Hill C.191

192Shepherd College .Slippery Rock, PA Sureste del estado de Missouri U Sur de New Hampshire Springfield College Stetson, FL SUNY Oneonta Syracuse Temple, PA Thomas College, ME Tiffin Univ Tulane, LA U de Delaware U de IL en Urbana-Champaign U de Iowa U de Memphis , TN U de Miami U de Michigan (Kinesiología) U de Oregón U. Florida Central U. Delaware U. Denver U. Tampa UMass Amherst Univ de Georgia Univ de Oregon Univ de Pittsburg, Bradford Campus Univ. de Iowa University of New England (Me) University of the Pacific (Ca) Valparaiso (Mn) Wagner C. West Chester, PA Western New England College Widener Univ, PA Xavier U. OH Studio Art BA Bard Connecticut College Denison Lawrence Moravian Scripps Skidmore Smith sur de Connecticut 192

193Southwestern University St. Olaf Trinity College UCLA University of Iowa Wagner College Structural Engineering. Cal State Fresno - Fresno, CA Clarkson University - Potsdam, NY George Washington University - DC Johnson & Wales - Providence, RI Ohio State University - Columbus, OH Old Dominion University - VA Penn State University - Harrisburg Capitol College (Structural Engineering Technology) Purdue University - IN University of California, Davis University of California, San Diego University of Southern California University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, WI Summer Academic Program: Specific Emphasis on Writing Skills Dean College Curry College Landmark College Boston University Salisbury School of Reading and Writing Wolfeboro Camp School University of Iowa Summer Writing Program) Project Advance at York University Camp Kodiak, Ontario Sheila Morrison School - summer academic program Utopia,Ontario Carleton College Cornell University Summer Architecture/Engineering Cornell Carnegie Mellon Cal Poly San Luis Obispo Cal Poly--San Luis Obispo California Catholic College of the Arts U. Cooper Union Drexel 193

194Florida State Harvard Lehigh New York Institute of Technology Parsons School of Design Pratt Institute Southern Illinois Syracuse University Tulane U Notre Dame U Texas, Austin University of Miami University of Southern California USC UVA Washington U. Woodbury Woodbury Textile Design Middlesex Univ in London U Mass , Dartmouth Fashion Institute of Design and Merchandising Drexel Art Institute in Houston and Dallas Albright Brescia (Ontario, Canada) Edinboro (Penn) Fashion Institute of Technology (FIT in New York City) U Kansas UNC, Greensboro Memphis College of Art Monterey Peninsula College Moore College of Art Philadelphia University RISD Syracuse U Tennessee Tyler (Temples Ambler Branch, PA) Savannah College of Art & Design 3-2 Engineering Austin College Affiliated to: University of Texas at Dallas 194

195Texas A&M College Station Washington University (St Louis) Columbia University. University of Richmond Columbia University George Washington University Virginia Tech Russell Sage College With the Rennselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). Saint Joseph's College of Maine with Manhattan College Whitman Affiliated to: Cal Tech Columbia Washington University Duke U of Washington Clark University Columbia University, NY; University of Washington, St. Louis. Louis; or Worcester Polytechnic Institute, University of Kentucky. Eckerd College Ohio Wesleyan with Caltech, and Wash U at St. Louis. Louis Niagara University with University at Buffalo (SUNY) and University of Detroit Mercy. Hood College with George Washington University. Franklin and Marshall Ursinus Whitworth College Rhodes College with Wash U UT Memphis

196Russell Sage College with Rensselaer. Santa Clara University California State University at Fresno Schreiner University. Westminster College of Salt Lake City with Washington University in St. Louis. Louis and the University of Southern California. Puget Sound Fairfield University Columbia University with the following schools: Adelphi University, Garden City, NY Albertson College, Caldwell, ID Albion College, Albion, MI Alfred University, Alfred, NY Allegheny College, Meadville, PA Arcadia University, Glenside, PA Augustana College , Sioux Falls, SD Austin College, Sherman, TX Baldwin-Wallace College, Berea, OH Bard College, Annandale-on-Hudson, NY Barnard College, New York, NY Bates College, Lewiston, ME Beirut University College, Beirut, Lebanon Beloit College, Beloit, WI Bethany College, Bethany, WV Birmingham-Southern College, Birmingham, AL Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME Brandeis University, Waltham, MA Carleton College, Northfield, MN Carroll College, Helena, MT LA Center College, Danville, KY Claremont McKenna College, Claremont, CA Clark University, Worcester, MA Colgate University, Hamilton, NY College of Notre Dame, Baltimore, MD College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MA 196

197College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO Columbia College, Nueva York, NY Davidson College, Davidson, NC Denison University, Granville, OH DePauw University, Greencastle, IN Dillard University, Nueva Orleans, LO Doane College , Creta, NE Drew University, Madison, NJ Earlham College, Richmond, IN Eckerd College, St. Petersburg, FL Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT Fordham University, Bronx, NY Franklin and Marshall College, Lancaster, PA Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA Grinnell College, Grinnell, IA Hamilton College, Clinton, NY Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY Hastings College, Hastings, NE Hendrix College, Conway, AR Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Ginebra, NY Hofstra University, Hempstead, NY Illinois Wesleyan University, Bloomington , IL Jacksonville University, Jacksonville, FL Juniata College, Huntingdon, PA Kansas Wesleyan University, Salina, KS Knox College, Galeburg, IL Lawrence University, Appleton, WI Lewis and Clark College, Portland, OR Loyola University Chicago, Chicago, IL MacMurray College , Jacksonville, IL Marietta College, Marietta, OH Miami University, Oxford, OH Middlebury College, Middlebury, VT Millsaps College, Jackson, MI Morehouse College, Atlanta, GA Muhlenberg College, Allentown, PA Nebraska Wesleyan University, Lincoln, NE Occidental College, Los Ángeles, CA Pacific Lutheran University, Tacoma, WA Pitzer College, Claremont, CA Providence College, Providence, RI Queens College, Flushing, NY Randolph-Macon College, Ashland, VA Reed College, Portland, OR Rollins College, Winter Park, FL St. John Fisher College, Rochester, NY Universidad de St. Lawrence, Canton, NY 197

198Sarah Lawrence College, Bronxville, NY School of General Studies, Columbia University, New York, NY Scripps College, Claremont, CA Seattle Pacific University, Seattle, WA Simon's Rock College of Bard, Great Barrington, MA Spelman College, Atlanta, GA State University of New York, Fredonia, NY State University of New York, Geneseo, NY State University of New York, Binghamton, NY Sweet Briar College, Sweet Briar, VA University of Puget Sound, Tacoma, WA University of Richmond, Richmond, VA University of the South, Sewanee, TN University of the Virgin Islands, St. Louis; Thomas, VI Ursinus College, Collegeville, PA Wabash College, Crawfordsville, IN Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, PA Washington and Lee University, Lexington, VA Wells College, Aurora, NY Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT Whitman College, Walla Walla, WA Whitworth College, Spokane, WA Willamette University, Salem, O William Jewell College, Liberty, MO Williams College, Williamstown, MA Wittenberg University, Springfield, OH Wofford College, Spartanburg, SC Yeshiva University, New York, NY York College of Pennsylvania, York , PA Washington University and St. Louis University St. Louis with the following schools: Adrian College (MI) Albertson College of Idaho (ID) Allegheny College (PA) Augustana College (IL) Augustana University (SD) Austin College (TX) Baker University (KS) Baldwin-Wallace College (OH) Bard College (NY) Bates College (ME) Beloit College (WI) Berea College (KY) Bethany College (WV) Bethel College (MN) ) College of Southern Birmingham (AL) 198

199Blackburn College (IL) Buena Vista University (IA) Capital University (OH) Carleton College (MN) Centenary College (LA) Central College (IA) Center College (KY) Clark University (MA) Colgate University (NY) Colorado College (CO) ) Connecticut College (CT) Cornell College (IA) Davidson College (NC) DePauw University (IN) Denison University (OH) Doane College (NE) Drake University (IA) Drew University (NJ) Drury University (MO) Eckerd College (FL) ) Elon University (NC) Eureka College (IL) Florida Southern College (FL) Fontbonne University (MO) Franklin & Marshall College (PA) George Fox University (OR) Gettysburg College (PA) Goshen College (IN) Greenville College (IL) Grinnell College (IA) Hamilton University (NY) Hamline University (MN) Hastings College (NE) Hawaii Pacific University (HI) Hendrix College (AR) Hiram College (OH) Hobart & Wm Smith Colleges (NY) Hollins University (VA) Houghton College (NY) Illinois College (IL) Illinois Wesleyan University (IL) Jacksonville University (FL) Juniata College (PA) Kalamazoo College (MI) Kenyon College (OH) Knox College (IL) Lake Forest College (IL) Lawrence University (WI) ) 199

200Lewis & Clark College (OR) Loyola University of Chicago (IL) Luther College (IA) MacMurray College (IL) Macalester College (MN) Manchester College (IN) Maryville College (TN) Maryville University (MO) Miami University (OH) Middlebury College (VT) Millikin University (IL) Millsaps College (MS) Monmouth College (IL) Moravian College (PA) Muhlenberg College (PA) Nebraska Wesleyan University (NE) North Central College (IL) Northland College (WI) Northwestern College (IA) ) Oberlin College (OH) Ohio Wesleyan University (OH) Otterbein College (OH) Our Lady of the Lake University (TX) Pacific Lutheran University (WA) Pacific University (OR) Pepperdine University (CA) Pomona College (CA) Principia College ( IL) Providence College (RI) Puget Sound, Universidad de (WA) Quincy University (IL) Randolph-Macon Woman's College (VA) Regis University (CO) Rhodes College (TN) Rockford College (IL) Rollins College (FL) Samford University (AL) Simon's Rock College of Bard (MA) Simpson College (IA) Sioux Falls, University of (SD) Sewanee: The University of the South (TN) Southwestern College (KS) Southwestern University (TX) St. Catherine, College of (MN) St. Lawrence University (NY) St. Louis University (MO) St. Mary's College of CA (CA) St. Olaf College (MN) 200

201St. Louis Thomas, University of (MN) Sweet Briar College (VA) Tougaloo College (MS) University of Transylvania (KY) Ursinus College (PA) Virgin Islands, University of (VI) Wabash College (IN) Warren Wilson College (NC) Washington & Jefferson College (PA) Waynesburg College (PA) Webster University (MO) Westminster College (MO) Westminster College (UT) Whitman College (WA) Whittier College (CA) Whitworth College (WA) Willamette University (OR) William and Mary, College of (VA) William Jewell College (MO) University of Wittenberg (OH) Wooster, College of (OH) Video Games DigiPen Institute of Technology at Redmond, Washington The Arts Institutes International at San Francisco Georgia Tech Loyola of New Orleans Bradley at Ill. CDIS in Vancouver (www.artschool.com) Expression Center for New Media SanFrancisco Westwood Institute of Technology Full Sail. U Mass Amherst Wheelchair Suitable Agnes Scott College Arizona State University Augsburg College Bradley University Butler University Edinboro University George Washington Gordon College Hofstra College Pitzer College Seattle University 201

202St. Simmons College St. Andrew's Presbyterian College Stanford Stonehill College UC Berkeley Vanderbilt Vassar College Whitman College Wright State U Womens Rugby www.nerfu.org www.usarugby.org Allegheny College Amherst Coll. Arizona State U Bard Bates Binghampton U Boston Coll. Bucknell University U Clark Dartmouth Coll. Gettysburg College Kutztown Lafayette Loch Haven Mt. Holyoke Naval Academy Niagara UOhio Wesleyan University Penn State Princeton U. Providence Coll. Radford U. (VA) Saint Marys College of California Salisbury University Stanford Susquehanna University Temple U. UC Santa Barbara Univ. of Connecticut University of Idaho University of New Hampshire Univ. of vermont 202

203University of Wyoming Williams Coll. 203

204Appendix VII Universities attended by CEOs hired at Fortune 1000 companies in 2004, 2005 Company CEO University degree received from Vernon Acuity Brands Nagel University of Michigan Martin AGCO Richenhagen University of Bonn and Cologne Agilent William Technologies Sullivan University of Cal- Davis Donald Allete Shippar University of Wisconsin, Superior Amica Mutual Robert Insurance DiMuccio Providence College Joseph Tufts University; MBA Aramark University Neubauer Chicago Charles ArvinMeritor McClure Cornell Dean Hiram College; MBA Avery University Dennison Scarborough Chicago Baker Hughes Chad Deaton University of Wyoming Baxter Robert International Parkinson University Loyola University Valparaiso University; MBA Lake Forest Graduate School of Beckman Coulter Scott Garrett Management California State University at Los Boeing James Bell Angeles Scott Broadcom McGregor Stanford Timothy Centex Eller University of Nebraska David Joos Iowa State University Coca-Cola Neville Isdell University of Cape Town Computer Science John Associates Swainson University of Mainland British Columbia Larry Airlines Kellner University of South Carolina Wendell Corning Weeks Lehigh University; MBA Harvard Crompton Robert Wood University of Michigan CUNA Mutual Jeff Post University of Wisconsin at Madison 204

205Kettering University Group; MBA from Michael the Wharton School of Finance and Dana Burns University of Pennsylvania. Darden College Clarence Williams; Bachelor of Laws Restaurants Otis Stanford Kevin Dell Computing Rollins University Brigham Young Ronald Dover Hoffman Oklahoma State University Andrew University of Queensland, Brisbane, Dow Chemical Liveris, Australia Dun & Steven St. Francis College; MBA Bradstreet University Alesio of Wharton School Olaf College of Pennsylvania; MBA Kellogg Energizer Graduate School of Management at Holdings Ward Klein Northwestern University Fannie Mae Daniel Mudd University of Virginia Anthony FirstEnergy Alexander The University of Akron Fleetwood Enterprises Elden Smith Whittier College Great Lakes John Chemical Gallagher; MBA Stan Askren of the University of Washington David IMS Health Carlucci University of Rochester Insight Richard Enterprises Fennessy Michigan State University of San Francisco; MBA from University of California, Intel Paul Otellini Berkeley Interpublic Michael Group Roth CUNY Steven University of Colorado; Masters ITT Industries Loranger University of Colorado Myron Mike JC Penney Ullman University of Cincinnati James Kellogg Jenness DePaul University at Chicago King Brian Pharmaceuticals Markison Iona College Aylwin Kmart Holding Lewis University of Houston LandAmerica Theodore University of Virginia; TC Williams Financial Group Chandler 205 University School of Law

206Richmond System Henry Landstar University Gerkens Adelphi Robert Lockheed Martin Stevens Louisiana State University Slippery Rock; MBA Richard Northwestern State University of Louisiana-Pacific Frost Louisiana Robert University of North Carolina- Lowe's Niblock Charlotte James Lubrizol n Hambrick Texas A&M University Yonsei University, Korea; MBA from the University of Chicago and a PhD in Business Chong Sup Administration from Nova Maxtor Park Southeastern University Mutual University of Iowa; Master's Degree, Omaha Daniel Neary University of Iowa The New York Janet Times Co. . Robinson Salve Regina College Cornell University; American William Graduate School of International Nike Perez Management Steven Rose-Hulman Institute of Owens-Illinois McCracken Technology Gregory Peabody Energy Boyce University of Arizona Binghamton University; Perot Systems University Peter Altabef of Chicago Law School PETCO Animal Supplies James Myers John Carroll University PG&E Peter Darbee Dartmouth; MBA Dartmouth Jefferson Premcor Allen Lehigh University; MBA Harvard Robert University of Texas, USA. UU. Naval Progress Energy McGehee Academy David Pacific Coast Baptist College at St. RadioShack Edmondson Sunday, California Brenda Sara Lee Barnes Augustana Donald Sempra Energy Felsinger University of Arizona. Martin Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; Sequa Weinstein Masters MIT Service Thomas Corporation Ryan University of Texas at Austin 206

207International Michael Siebel Systems Lawrie Ohio University; MBA Drexel University Tim LaSalle; MBA LaSalle SLM Fitzpatrick University Jack Snap-on Michaels University of Cincinnati Southwest Airlines Gary Kelly University of Texas Southwest Gas Jeffrey Shaw University of Utah Ohio State University; MBA Georgia Spherion Roy Krause State Christopher University of Notre Dame; DePaul SPX Kearney University School of Law Stephen Stryker MacMillan Davidson College Bangalore University; MS Indian Institute of Technology at Mumbai Tellabs Krish Prabhu (Bombay) Montana Tech at the University of Texas Industries Mel Brekhus Montana Texas Richard Instruments Templeton Union College University of Hawaii; Southeastern Missouri State University Dick Parsons Union Time-Warner University Albany College of Law; TXU John Wilder MBA University of Texas Joseph Unisy McGrath Rutgers University United States Steel John Surma Pennsylvania State University US Airways Bruce Grou Lakefield US Naval Academy University of Michigan; MS USEC James Mellor University of Michigan University of Saint Thomas; MBA from The J.L. Thomas Kellogg School of Management at USF Bergmann Northwestern University. William Valspar Mansfield Drexel; MBA Lehigh University of Massachusetts at Lowell; MBA Michael from Michigan State Visteon Johnston University Walt Disney Robert Iger Ithaca Waste David Louisiana State University; Law Administration Steiner Degree University of California at 207

208The Angels. Whirlpool Jeff Fettig Indiana University Winn-Dixie Stores Peter Lynch Nichols College Source: Burson-Marsteller research and USA TODAY 208

209Appendix VIII – Resources for Those Considering Taking a Gap Year Before College: Graduate Options General Websites: www. Takingtimeoff.com www.dynamy.org www.studyoverseas.com www.gquest.org www.gapyear.com Consultants www .leapnow.org www.whereyouheaded.com www.interimprograms.com Books: Invest Yourself published by the Voluntary Service Commission and Action Time Out by Robert Gilpin and Caroline Fitzgibbons (currently out of print, check local libraries) Taking Time Off by Hall and Lieber Peterson's Taking Time Off by Gail Reardon Summer Opportunities for Teenagers The Day I Became Self-Taught by Kendall Hailey But, What if I don't want to go to college? A Guide to Success Through Alternative Education, by Harlow G. Unger. Specific programs and websites: www.seamester.com www.semesteratsea.com www.americorps.org 209

210www.city-year.org www.iicd-volunteer.org www.camphillassociation.org www.nascc.org www.servenet.org www.globalservicecorps.org www.NOLS.edu www.outwardbound.org www.audubon.org www .wheretherebedragons.com www.youngjudea.org 210

211Appendix IX NCAA Scouting Rules: 22 Terms: ACT/SAT Standardized tests used by many colleges for admissions purposes. You must take the ACT or SAT and meet the scores described on page 7. Amateur To be eligible to play varsity sports, you must maintain your amateur status. To review the NCAA rules, go online to www.ncaa.org. Booster A person who supports a particular college athletic program by donating money to the college or by promoting the college's athletic program. Clearinghouse The organization responsible for certifying your academic eligibility for practice, competition, and financial aid for Division I and Division II Contact A contact occurs any time a coach has face-to-face contact with you or your parents outside of the college campus and says more than hello. Contact also occurs if a coach has any contact with you or your parents at your high school or where you are competing or practicing. Contact Period During this time, a college coach may have face-to-face contact with you and/or your parents on or off the college campus. The coach can also watch you play or visit your high school. You and your parents can visit a college campus, and the coach can text and phone you during this time. Core Courses Courses that are academic, college preparatory, and meet high school graduation requirements in one of the following subject areas: English, mathematics, natural/physical science, social science, foreign language, non-doctrinal religion, or philosophy . See page 8 for more information. Deadline The college coach may not have any in-person contact with you or your parents at any time during the deadline. The coach may write and phone you or your parents during this time. Assessment An assessment is an activity conducted by a coach to assess your academic or athletic ability. This would include visiting your high school or watching you practice or compete anywhere. Judging Period The college coach may watch you play or visit your high school, but may not have face-to-face conversations with you and your parents off the college campus. You and your parents can visit a college campus during this period. A coach can write and phone you or your parents during this time. Financial aid Money you receive from college or another source, such as outside loans or grants. Financial aid may be athletic-related or based on something else, such as academic achievement or financial need. It is also known as a scholarship. 22 From the NCAA 211 website

212GED General Educational Development Test. The GED can replace high school graduation under certain conditions. If you have the GED, you must still have the required number of core courses, the required GPA, and the required ACT or SAT score. Grade Point Average Your NCAA grade point average is calculated using your core course grades only. See page 8 for an explanation of the GPA calculation. Grayshirt An individual who is recruited out of high school, but who delays college enrollment for a period or periods. Home School An individual who does not attend a traditional high school. A home schooled student must register with the clearinghouse like any other student. Approved Core Course List This list contains all of the core courses taught at your high school. In order for the clearinghouse to use courses from your transcript, the course must be on your high school's list of approved core courses. See page 8 for instructions on how to find your high school list. NCAA National Collegiate Athletic Association. The national governing body for more than 1,200 colleges, universities, conferences, and organizations. NLI National Letter of Intent. A legal, binding contract in which the prospective student-athlete agrees to attend that university for one academic year. In exchange, the university agrees to provide the individual with financial aid for athletics for one academic year. For more information, visit www.national-letter.org. Unqualified An individual who has not met the academic requirements outlined on pages 6 and 7. An Unqualified may not practice, compete, or receive institutional financial aid for one academic year and has three seasons of competition in Division I. Official Visit Any visit to a university campus by you and your parents paid for by the university. Any visit to a college campus by you and your parents paid for by the college. The university may pay for the following expenses: Your transportation to and from the university; Accommodation and meals (three per day) for you and your parents while you visit the university; and Reasonable entertainment expenses, including three free admissions to a home track meet. Before a college can invite you for an official visit, you will need to provide the college with a copy of your high school transcript (Division I only) and SAT, ACT, PACT, PSAT, or PLAN score. Future student-athlete. You become a future student-athlete when you: Start ninth grade classes; o Before your ninth grade year, a college provides you, your family, or your friends with financial aid or other benefits that the college does not generally provide to students. 212

213Quiet period. The college coach may not have any in-person contact with you or your parents off the college campus. The coach cannot see you play or visit your high school during this period. You and your parents can visit a college campus during this time. A coach may write or phone you or your parents during this time. Partial Qualifier Term used only in Division II. A person who has met part of the academic requirements. A partial qualifier may practice on campus and receive institutional financial aid, but may not compete for one academic year. See page 7 for more information. PIN Personal identification number. When you register with the clearinghouse, you choose your own four-digit PIN. This PIN will allow you to check your eligibility online or over the phone. Be sure to remember which PIN you chose. For high schools, each school selects its own five-digit PIN that allows high school staff to access specific information through the clearinghouse website. Prospective student-athlete An individual who has begun classes for the ninth grade. Sometimes called a prospect, he is a person who would like to participate in college sports. Also known as a recruit. You become a future student-athlete when you: Start ninth grade classes; o Before your ninth grade year, a college provides you, your family, or your friends with any financial aid or other benefits that the college does not generally provide to students. Qualified A person who has met the academic requirements to practice athletics. practice, compete and receive institutional financial aid. Quiet Period The college coach may not have any in-person contact with you or your parents off the college campus. The coach cannot see you play or visit your high school during this period. You and your parents can visit a college campus during Recruitment A person who is recruited by a college is someone who has been called up by a coach more than once, someone who has been contacted by a coach off campus, or someone who has received a official notice. visit of a school College recruiting coaches will try to get you to come to their college. When the coach calls you, sends you written materials, comes to watch you practice or play, or contacts you in person, that's known as recruiting. Trainers must follow certain recruiting rules. Redshirt An individual who does not play in ANY varsity game or scrimmage, in a given academic year. If you play even in a second of a game as a college athlete, you can't be a redshirt. Student-athlete An individual who is recruited to attend a particular college to play on one of its athletic teams or a student who reports to practice at a college. Unofficial visit Any visit by you and your parents to a college campus paid for by you or your parents. The only expense you can receive from the university is three free admissions to a home athletics 213

214contest. You can make as many unofficial visits as you like, and you can do them at any time. The only time you can't speak to a coach during an unofficial visit is during a dead period. Waiver A process for waiving academic rules due to specific extraordinary circumstances that prevented you from adhering to the rules. The university must file a waiver on your behalf. Walk-on A person who does not receive institutional athletic financial aid (scholarship), but is a member of a varsity track team. What requirements do I need to be able to practice, play, and earn a scholarship at a Division I or Division II school? You must complete the following: Graduate from high school; Complete a minimum of 14* core courses; Submit a minimum grade point average (GPA) in those core courses of 14*; and Submit a qualifying score on the ACT or SAT. * In Division I, the minimum number of core courses is 16 for students who entered a Division I school on or after August 1, 2008. DIVISION I (2008 AND LATER) If you enroll in a Division I college in 2008 or later and want to participate in track or receive a track scholarship, you must meet all NCAA requirements: 16 required core courses Four years of English ; Three years of mathematics (Algebra I or higher); Two years of natural or physical science (including one year of science lab if offered by your high school); One additional year of English, mathematics, or natural/physical science; two years of social sciences; and Four years of additional courses (from any category above, or foreign language, non-doctrinal religion, or philosophy) You will not qualify if you do not meet the academic requirements listed above. As an unclassified, you: May not participate in athletic contests or practices during your first year in college; You may receive financial aid based solely on need (non-athletic financial aid) in your first year of college; and 214

215You can play only three seasons (to earn a fourth season you must graduate before your fifth year of college). 215

216NCAA Division I Eligibility Table GPA SAT ACT 3,550 and above 400 37 3,525 410 38 3,500 420 39 3,475 430 40 3,450 440 41 3,425 450 41 3,400 460 42 3,375 47 0 42 3,350 480 43 3,325 490 44 3,300 500 44 3,275 510 45 3,250 520 46 3,225 530 46 3,200 540 47 3,175 550 47 3,150 560 48 3,125 570 49 3,100 580 49 3,075 590 50 3,050 600 50 3 .025 610 51 3,000 620 52 2,975 630 52 2,950 640 53 2,925 650 53 2,900 660 54 2,875 670 55 2,850 680 56 2,825 690 56 2,800 700 57 2,775 710 58 2,750 720 59 2,725 730 59 2,700 730 60 2,675 740-750 61 2,650 760 62 2,625 770 63 2,600 780 64 2,575 790 65 2,550 800 66 2,525 810 67 2,500 820 68 2,475 830 69 2,450 840-850 70 2,425 860 70 2,400 860 71 2,375 870 72 2,350 880 73 2,325 890 74 2,300 900 75 2,275 910 76 2,250 920 77 2,225 930 78 2,200 940 79 2,175 950 80 2,150 960 80 2,125 960 81 2,100 970 82 2,075 980 83 2,050 990 84 2,025 1000 85 2,000 1010 86 216

217Appendix X: College Websites AACRAO http://aacrao.org Admission Advice http://admissionsadvice.com Adv in Education http://adventuresineducation.org/ All About College http://www.allaboutcollege.com/ Anything university http ://www.anycollege.com/ BA-MD Programs http://www.medicalhelpnet.com/content/view/28/46/ Black Excel http://blackexcel.org Business Colleges http://www. bschool. com/ Campus Dirt http://campusdirt.com/ Campus Tours http://www.campustours.com/ Universities of Canada http://www.campusstarter.com/ Universities of Canada http://www.aucc.ca Cappex http://www.cappex.com Careers and Colleges http://careersandcolleges.com Catholic Universities http://www.catholiccollegesonline.org CB Net http://www.collegebound.net/ Center for Stud Opp http:// csopportunity. org Christ Coll Mentor http://www.christiancollegementor.com/ Chronicle Higher Ed http://chronicle.com Coll. Optional SAT http://www.fairtest.org/optinit.htm College Board http://www.collegeboard.com College Confidential http://www.collegeconfidential.com College Comparisons http://nces.ed.gov/ ipedspas /Expt/ College data http://www.collegedata.com College directory http://www.allaboutcollege.com/ College information http://collegeapps.about.com/?once=true& College is possible http:/ /www .collegeispossible.org/ College Majors http://www.collegemajors101.com College Navigator http://nces.ed.gov/collegenavigator College Net http://www.collegenet.com/ College News http://www .collegenews .com/ College Night http://www.collegenight.com/index.html College Plan http://collegeplan.org/ College Prep 101 http://collegeprep101.com College Preview http://college-preview. com College Prowler http://collegeprowler.com College Rankings http://www.library.uiuc.edu/edx/rankings.htm College Results http://collegeresults.org College Solutions http://www.college-solutions. com/ College Supplement http://www.collegesummit.com College Summit http://www.collegesummit.org College Tool Kit http://www.collegetoolkit.com College Trends http://professionals.collegeboard.com/data- reports- research/trends College Visits http://www.college-visits.com College View http://www.collegeview.com/ College Week Live http://www.collegeweeklive.com 217

218College Zapps http://collegezapps.com Comm Coll Info http://www.ccsse.org Common Application http://www.commonapp.org/ Coun Intern Schools http://www.cois.org Coun Intern Exchan http: //ciee.org Degree Search http://www.degreesearch.com/ Dir Accred Prog http://ope.ed.gov/accreditation Early College http://www.hoagiesgifted.org/early_college.htm ECampus Tours http : //www.ecampustours.com Education Info http://www.educationinfo.com/ Education Internat'l http://www.eiworldwide.com/ Educ Online Search http://www.education-online-search. com/ Educational Planning http://www.niep.com/ Educational Statistics http://nces.ed.gov/ipeds/cool/ Embark http://www.embark.com Engineering Information http://www.engineering - colleges.info/ Engineering Schools http://www.allengineeringschools.com/ Go College http://www.gocollege.com/ Higher Education. Info Cent http://www.tericollegeaccess.org/ Higher Ed Accred http://chea.org Higher Ed Watch http://newamerica.net/blog/higher_ed_watch Hillel http://www.hillel.org/ Hispanic Coll Info http://hacu.net Hispanic Student Information http://chci.org Hist. Black Colleges http://www.smart.net/~pope/hbcu/hbculist.htm Independent Colleges http://cic.edu/ Independent Colleges http://www.ucan-network.org Improving Educ http://evergreen .edu/washcenter/project.asp?pid=73 Inq. Liberal Arts http://www.liberalarts.wabash.edu/cila Inside Higher Ed http://insidehighered.com International Coll. http://www.ies-ed.com/ Irish Colleges http://www.educationireland.ie Jesuit Colleges http://www.ajcunet.edu/ Jour Blacks High Ed http://www.jbhe.com More information http://www.learnmoreindiana.org/ My College Guide http://mycollegeguide.org My College Options http://mycollegeoptions.org My Game Plan http://mygameplan.biz Native Am Edu http://www .oiep .bia.edu NJ Transfer http://www.njtransfer.org/ Petersons http://www.petersons.com/ Quest Bridge http://questbridge.org Resident Learn Comm http://pcc.bgsu.edu /rlcch School Finder Canada http://www.schoolfinder.com US Schools http://www.schoolsintheusa.com/ Student Engagement http://www.nsse.iub.edu Students.gov http:/ /www.students. gov Study Abroad http://www.studyabroad.com/ 218

219Super College http://www.supercollege.com Sitio de Talbots College http://www.talbotsbook.com/ Tribal Colleges http://tribalcollegejournal.org Universal Application http://www.universalcollegeapp.com US College Rankings http:/ /www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/college/rankings/rankindex_brief.php Vault http://www.vault.com Videos de recorridos a pie http://www.collegiatechoice.com/ Work Colleges http://workcolleges.org Xap http://www.xap.com/ Sitio educativo de Yahoo http://dir.yahoo.com/Education/ You University http://youniversity.tv Pruebas ACT http://www.act.org/ Pruebas de admisión http ://www.admissiontests.org Kaplan http://www.kaplan.com/ Number 2 http://number2.com Power Prep http://www.powerprep.com/ Practice Tests http://www.testprepreview. com/ SAT Opcional http://fairtest.org Test Gear http://www.testu.com/frameset.asp The Princeton Review http://www.princetonreview.com General Campus Crime Stats http://www.ope. ed.gov/security/ Education Conserv http://www.educationconservancy.org/ Páginas griegas http://greekpages.com/ Recursos de orientación http://www.wisemantech.com/guidance/ Make College Count http://www .makingcollegecount.com/ NACAC http://www.nacacnet.org Preparando a su hijo http://www.ed.gov/pubs/Prepare/index.html Serve.Net http://www.servenet.org/ Diversión de verano http://www.summerfun.com Programas de verano http://educationunlimited.com Los peores ensayos http://world.std.com/~edit/ouch.htm Ayuda financiera y becas College Fund Comp http://www.nelnet .net/ Becas universitarias http://www.college-scholarships.com/ Econ Div Colleges http://economicdiversity.org EduPrep http://www.csnamerica.com/ FA Estimator http://www.act.org/ Fane/ FA Carta http://financialaidletter.com 219

220Fastweb http://fastweb.monster.com/ Federal Reserve Financial Aid Information http://studentaid.ed.gov/ Financial Aid Resources http://www.theoldschool.org/ Finaid.org http:// ww.finaid.org Scholarships, Etc. http://www.ssw.umich.edu/resources/browse.html Hispanic Scholarships http://hsf.net Hispanic Scholarships http://scholarshipsforhispanics.org Indep 529 Plans http:/ /www.independent529plan. org Intern Stud FA http://www.iefa.org/ Jack Kent Cooke http://jackkentcookefoundation.org Loan information http://www.wellsfargo.com/student/loans/undergrad/index.jhtml Nellie Mae http: / /www.nelliemae.com/ NJ Financial Aid Info http://www.hesaa.org/ Salliemae http://www.salliemae.com/ Saving for College http://www.savingforcollege.com Scholar Stuff http:/ / www.scholarstuff.com/ Scholarship Coach http://www.scholarshipcoach.com/ Scholarship Page http://www.scholarship-page.com/ Scholarship Scams http://ftc.gov/scholarshipscams Scholarships.com http:// becas.com/ Student FA Guide http://studentaid..gov/ Aptitude, Interest, Career ASVAB http://www.asvabprogram.com Bureau of Labor Stat http://stats.bls.gov/ Campbell Career Surv http://www.usnews.com/usnews/edu/careers/ccciss.htm Career Cruising http://www.careercruising.com Career Mag. http://www.careermag.com/ Career Overview http:/ /www.overview.com/colleges/ Career Schools http://www.careerschools.org/ Careers and Colleges http://www.careersandcolleges.com Do What You Are http://www.dowhatyouare.com/bridges/ Global Quest http://www.gquest.org/ Humanetrics http://www.humanmetrics.com/cgi-win/Jtypes1.htm Interest Assessment http:// www.rci.rutgers.edu/~cswebpg/PCCPinterests.html Learn Adven Abroad http://www.wheretherebedragons.com/ Life Colors http://www.lifecolorsonline.com/lifecolorslite.html Mpegasus Career Information http://www .mpegasus.com/begin.html My Specialties http: //www.mymajors.com/ My Road http://apps.collegeboard.com/myroad/navigator.jsp?t=351&i=homepage Next Stop http://www .njnextstop.org People Patterns http://www .keirsey.com/ Personality Test http://www.advisorteam.com/temperament_sorter/ Personality Type http://www.personalitytype.com 220

221Personality Types http://typelogic.com/ Personality.com http://www.personality.com Similar Minds http://www.similarminds.com/ Vocational Schools http://www.rwm.org/rwm/ Year free Americorps http://www.americorps.org/ Camphill (volunteer) http://www.camphill.org/ City Year http://www.cityyear.org/ Gap Year http://www.gapyear.com/ Interim Programs http://www.interimprograms.org/ Intern'l Voluntering http://www.iicd-volunteer.org/ Outdoor Lead. School http://www.nols.edu/ Outward Bound http://www.outwardbound.org/ Semester at Sea http://www.seamester.com/ Serv. Keep Assn http://www.thesca.org/ Take time off http://www. Takingoff.net Athletics Link Athletics.com http://www.linkathletics.com/ NAIA http://www.naia.org/index .html NCAA http://www2.ncaa.org/ NCAA Clearinghouse http ://ncaaclearinghouse.net 221

222Appendix XI: Trends in Higher Education William T. Bowen has written two books on trends in education over the past two decades: The Shape of the River (on affirmative action) and Equity and Access in Higher Education. Below are some of the findings and conclusions of these two seminal papers: The Shape of the River At highly selective colleges, graduation rates for underrepresented minority students were not significantly lower than for other students. Graduation rates were not greatly affected entering the SAT. scores of black or white students at highly selective colleges The earnings differential between blacks and whites decreases substantially with more education. The percentage of African-American students from highly selective colleges who earned law and medical degrees was higher than that of white students. Conclusions: The recruitment and admission of underrepresented minority students has had a positive impact on admitted students. Equity and Excellence in American Higher Education The two most important trends at the university are the increase in the enrollment of women at all levels of higher education and the increase in the enrollment of foreign students at the doctoral level. In 1950, only 6% of adults had a 4-year college degree. In 2002, that number increased to 27%. From 1970 to 2001, the percentage of medical degrees offered to women went from 9 to 43 percent. In law, 7 to 47% and in business, 4 to 41%. In 2002, 51% of all doctorates went to women. Virtually all of the growth in doctorates in the last 30 years has been for students on foreign visas. The number of doctorates from US citizens decreased by 5% during that time, with the steepest drops in physical sciences and engineering. Since 1990, engineering degrees in the US have decreased by 8% and mathematics by 20%. math level The rate for African Americans is 31% and for Hispanics 44%. There is dramatic growth in PhDs earned outside the US. In 2000, 78% were earned outside the US. China went from 234 doctoral degrees in 1985 to 12,465 in 2001.222

223The role of income and family history in determining post-secondary training options has increased over time, although there is some evidence that it is beginning to decline in the recent past. Schools attended by poor children had a very high percentage of poor children. The average school a poor child attended in the United States had more than 50% of the students receiving free or reduced aid. African-American and Hispanic students were 10 times more likely than whites to attend elementary schools with more than 75% of the student body receiving free or reduced-price lunch. Students in the highest income quartile were 6 times more likely to take and score well on the SATs than those in the bottom quartile. 33 percent of low-income top-achieving students ($90,000) did. 44% of students in the lowest income group received bachelor's degrees. 78% in the top quartile did. The percentage of students who enter the most selective universities with low incomes or who are first generation is very small. Women's colleges enroll a much higher percentage (15.7% to 9.3%) of low-income students. Recruited athletes were LESS likely than others to be in the lowest income group. Students from low SES groups are dispersed across majors just like the rest of the population. Although students in the lowest SES are more likely to be in the bottom third of the class, it is not as pronounced as athletes, 2/3 of whom are in the bottom third of the class. Students of low socioeconomic status do not underperform their peers Eliminating race-sensitive admissions to highly selective colleges would increase the admission rate for white students by less than 2% (25-26.5%). Applicants from low SES groups, whether defined by parental income or education, have no interruption in the admissions process. They are not doing better or worse. However, getting into the credible applicant pool is strongly affected by the parents' race, income, and education. Conclusions: 223

224The high percentage of poor and minority students who are educated in schools that have very high percentages of poor students and limited resources will limit the ability of these groups to catch up with higher income students. Even high achieving students from these schools were not as likely to apply to highly selective colleges as similarly achieving students from predominantly white or high SES (socioeconomic status) schools. Once lower-SES or minority students get into highly selective colleges (no small task), they perform just as well as their peers. The biggest trends in higher education are the dramatic increase in women at all levels of higher education and the dramatic increase in the number of foreign students earning doctorates. However, last year was the first in the last 50 years that there was a decline in the number of foreign students studying in the US. This is attributable to both post-9/11 difficulties in obtaining educational visas and to the growth of doctoral programs outside the US 224

225Appendix XII: National Survey of Student Engagement: 20 Schools Creating a Campus Culture that Fosters Student Success Alverno College (Wisconsin) California State University Monterey Bay The Evergreen State College (Wash.) Fayetteville State University (N.C.) University George Mason (Va.) Gonzaga University (Wash.) Longwood University (Virginia) Macalester College (Minn.) University of Miami (Ohio) Sewanee University of the South (Tenn.) Sweet Briar University (Virginia) University of Kansas (Kan.) University of Maine-Farmington University of Michigan-Ann Arbor University of Texas-El Paso Ursinus College (Pa.) Wabash College (Ind.) Wheaton College (Mass.) Winston-Salem State University (N.C.) Wofford College (S.C.) 225

226College Checklist (Make a separate sheet for each college in a loose-leaf binder) College Name______________________________________ Testing Requirement: College Address____________________________________ ______SAT I ______________________________________________ SAT Subject Tests (number)______ Phone Number ________________________________________ 1. Website ________________________________________ 2. Information Requested: Date____________________ 3 ______From Website ______By Mail _____At College Fair _________________ _____At High School Visit (Date______) Other__________________________________________ High School College Visit: Date________ Attended: _____Yes _____No Name of Representative of College ____________________________________ Representative Email Address _________________________________________________ Date of College Visit _________________________________ Impressions ___________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________ Majors/Programs of Interest ________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ Essay Topic ___________________________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________________ Application Submission Date ____________ Score Submission Date ______________ date Transcript Request Date_____________________ Transcript Submission Date_____________________ Teacher Recommendations: *Thank You Note 1. Name____________________ Date Requested_____________ TY* Note Date_______ 2. Name____________________ Date Requested____________ TY* Note Date________ Financial Aid: Profile Submission Date CSS____________ Date Submission of Transcript the FAFSA __________________ 226

227Appendix XIV: Colleges Not To Be Skipped By Edward T. Custard, Educational Consultant, CollegeMasters Colleges Students Need To Be Sure Not To Be Skipped The key to success in the college admissions process has less to do with the effort you put into it. students put in the applications they fill out to choose the right places to apply first. Matchmaking is what this game is all about, and as a result, students and their families cannot afford to limit their options to the familiar. While some of the following colleges and universities are fairly well-known in general, each one has characteristics that students may not easily be aware of. All are, for various reasons, well worth taking a closer look at. Albertson College of Idaho Caldwell, ID Albertson is a very strong private liberal arts college that also offers a very popular business administration program and a leadership studies major. It has very small classes, close contact with the faculty, and is a great place to prepare for life in the real world; it has produced seven Rhodes Scholars and Pulitzer and Academy Award winners. Alfred University Alfred, NY Alfred U. is home to the New York State School of Ceramics, which is the strongest of its kind in the nation and one of the best in the world. While the college is private and comes at a high price, the ceramics school is a public division and offers much lower tuition. The academic programs are top notch, regardless of the division in which you study. Its relatively remote small-town setting in the southern tier of New York state makes it popular with East Coast outdoor enthusiasts. Case Western Reserve University Cleveland, Ohio CWRU is a place with a very powerful combination: a relatively small undergraduate enrollment and a high-tech research environment. Students have great research opportunities, but with them comes a heavy workload. Recent construction projects on campus include a new library that is highly praised by students and a new home for Case Westerns School of Management. The Browns are back in the NFL, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction has helped boost Cleveland's image as a place to go. Champlain College Burlington, VT Champlain is primarily a two-year college, with a small number of undergraduate programs. It has excellent facilities, including an innovative new facility that integrates the library with the universities' computer labs and information services department. Cooperative programs are available for students who want hands-on professional experience. The campus is just outside of Burlington, a large college town that is also home to the University of Vermont. Claremont Colleges Claremont McKenna College, Harvey Mudd College, Pitzer College, Pomona College, Scripps College Claremont, CA 227

228Claremont Colleges is a cooperative effort between five physically adjacent colleges near Los Angeles that share access to their courses, campuses, and facilities with all students. Each college fulfills a different role and has its own distinct personality. Claremont McKenna focuses on the social sciences and humanities, with a first-rate faculty and challenging academic programs. Harvey Mudd focuses on engineering, math, and science in a very rigorous curriculum, and is perhaps best known for his institutional sense of humor. (Admissions literature is often labeled as Harvey Mudd junk mail.) Pitzer has the most liberal arts students in these five schools and offers greater academic flexibility than its sister schools. Pomona is perhaps the best known of the five, boasting a national student body and a challenging academic program that includes an extensive core curriculum and a comprehensive exam or senior project for graduation. Scripps is a women's college with very small classes and a very traditional liberal arts approach. Georgia Institute of Technology Atlanta, GA While most people have heard of Georgia Tech, not everyone realizes that it is a public university. As a result, Tech offers one of the best tuition deals found among tech schools. With an extensive fiber optic network that is one of the best in the country, Georgia Tech is at the forefront of cyberspace; a successful undergraduate current Internet entrepreneur recently made a $15 million donation for the improvement of the lab facilities. The downtown campus also got a big boost with the construction of $315 million worth of housing and sports facilities for the 1996 Olympics. Macalester College St. Paul, MN Macalester seems to offer all the best features found in colleges of liberal arts in one place; a beautiful campus, top-tier academic programs and study abroad opportunities, nationally competitive Division III athletic teams, students who regularly get more than their fair share of prestigious scholarships and fellowships for graduate study, and a great financial help. The university has a super endowment for a place its size and spends it lavishly on programs that directly benefit its students across the board. McGill University Montreal, Canada Americans often refer to McGill as the Harvard of Canada. While there are indeed some more rigorous universities north of the border, none of them are in the heart of downtown Montreal, the largest French-speaking city after Paris, and one of the largest university towns in South America. North to discover. The university teaches in English and offers academic excellence in a wide range of disciplines. The student body is remarkably diverse, much more than at most American universities, and has student representation from more than 140 countries. American students are highly sought after by Canadian universities, and due to the current Canadian dollar exchange rate, we effectively get more than a year free! New College Sarasota, FL Some of America's best higher education offerings can be found on the shores of Sarasota Bay facing the Gulf of Mexico at the 600-student New College. Once private, but now the Honors College of the State University System of Florida, the College offers one of the nations 228

229more rigorous academic programs at public prices. The degree programs, while based on traditional liberal arts, are all self-designed in consultation with faculty and require a senior thesis and formal defense for graduation. The College has built eleven new buildings in the last ten years; as a result, it boasts what must be the best facilities of any university of its size in the nation. It is fantastic preparation for those aspiring to graduate school. Rutgers The State University of New Jersey Piscataway, NJ Perhaps because so many New Jerseyans choose to leave the state for college, Rutgers is a less familiar word than it should be, even though it is the alma mater of Ally McBeals Calista Flockhart . The University is particularly strong in engineering, nursing, performing arts, and social sciences; eighteen undergraduate universities offer dozens of other quality options. Big East athleticism adds to the appeal; while many would be happier if the soccer team were competitive, the women's basketball team is a national powerhouse. The student body is remarkably diverse. Seattle University Seattle, WA Seattle U. is best represented by the unique opportunity it offers to attend an academically strong small urban university whose extremely successful campus revitalization has served to greatly influence and energize the surrounding neighborhood. The universities' Jesuit heritage and philosophy towards education is a great draw for students; his new $5 million chapel has become a major tourist attraction as well. While many students are native to the Pacific Northwest, there is a significant international presence that adds to the diverse flavor of the campus. Southwestern University Georgetown, TX About twenty-five miles north of Austin lies one of the best-kept secrets in higher education, Southwestern U. This academically impressive small school offers excellent business programs and strong liberal arts combined with a highly regarded faculty and a small classes. He has a great track record of internship experiences and career success. Socially, the Greek system is predominant, but students can choose to get away from it all for a while on the golf course on campus. University of Maryland Baltimore County Baltimore, MD The impressive University of Maryland Baltimore County has come out of nowhere. Although it is now largely a commuter school (about a quarter of students live on campus), construction is proceeding apace on all types of residential, social, and academic facilities. UMBC is particularly strong in computer science, especially computer graphics and information systems, and in the health professions. Although their athletic teams are quite competitive, it is chess that UMBC makes its name for. The University has been a three-time national collegiate chess champion in recent years and offers full scholarships for its best chess players. Sewanee South University, TN 229

230The University of the South, better known as Sewanee, offers a highly traditional, classical academic environment on one of the safest college campuses in the United States. Located on a 10,000-acre campus atop its own mountain, the University adopts a strict honor code that students diligently adhere to. By choice and tradition, rather than administrative rule, students dress neatly for class, with honor students or gown-dressers wearing academic robes along with their professors. This remarkable little university has produced twenty-three Rhodes Scholars. Xavier University of Louisiana New Orleans, LA Xavier University of Louisiana is the only predominantly black Catholic university in the Western Hemisphere. While it's largely a commuter school with only a third of its students living on campus, there's a big draw for students seeking careers in science-related professions: Xavier is the nation's leading school in the number of African American students earning degrees. in the sciences, and in the placement of African-American students in the schools of pharmacy and medicine. Twenty-five percent of all African American pharmacists in the country are Xavier graduates. Edward T. Custard has over 23 years of experience in college admissions and counseling. He is a Certified Educational Planner (CEP) and a partner at CollegeMasters, an educational consulting firm with offices in New York, Arizona, and New Mexico. A former director of college admissions, Ed has written and/or edited four college guides, including the best-selling Random House/Princeton Top Colleges Review Guide. To this list, I would add: Allegheny College Carleton College Clark University Drew University Grinnell College Miami University of Ohio Reed College SUNY at Binghamton University of Pittsburgh University of Rochester 230

231Appendix XV: Master's Degree Timeline and Checklist Junior Year ______ Register to take the PSAT. ______ Take the PSAT in October. ______ Gather the game tapes. (Winter/Spring athletes) ______ Schedule a spring college planning meeting with your school counselor. ______ Create a folder to store all your college planning materials. ______ Talk to your parents about your thoughts and plans for college. ______ Develop a personal inventory for your college search. ______ Register and prepare for the May and/or June SAT I/SAT II tests. ______ Meet with college admissions officers who visit your school. ______ Take the SAT in May and/or June. ______ Attend the New York City National College Fair. ______ Register with the NCAA Clearinghouse. (Athletes only) ______ Consider enrolling in a summer program for high school students. ______ Request admission materials from any college you are considering. ______ Read all accumulated college admissions literature. ______ Talk to students in your area who attend the colleges you are considering. ______ Initiate visits to universities. ______ Work on narrowing your college list to between 6 and 15. ______ Begin SAT preparation for senior year October SAT (Summer) 231

232Timetable for the university application process: senior year. September Meet with your high school guidance counselor. Review your summer college search progress and review your current high school transcript to see if it's accurate. Please review the task calendar for the remainder of the application process. Set a target date to finalize college options. Application requests by phone or email to colleges that are new to your list. Sign up and start preparing for the October and/or November SAT. SAT II Subject Tests are also offered on these test dates if you need to take them. Approach teachers in their core academic courses for recommendations. Do this as far in advance of the deadlines as possible - you'll be more likely to get a well-prepared, well-thought-out recommendation when you give them plenty of lead time. Plan fall college tours. Many colleges have special visiting programs for minority students that include covering travel costs. Get informed early to participate. October Take the October SAT Attend a college fair at your school or in the area. October and November provide the last opportunities to speak with admissions officers in person before applying. Large regional college fairs are held this month and include hundreds of colleges and universities in attendance. Check dates with your high school counselor. Meet with admission officers who visit your high school from colleges in which you are interested. These opportunities can also occur in November. Continue visiting universities. Finalize College Choices By the end of October, you should be close to finalizing your college list for six to eight schools to which you intend to apply. Start with the paperwork. As soon as it becomes clear that you will definitely apply to a particular university, start preparing answers to essay questions or assigned topics and gather any other materials you need to submit. If you are planning to apply for early decision or early action at your first choice college, make this your priority. November Take the November SAT. 232

233Register for the December SAT I/SAT II tests if you plan to take one or both. Choose your final college list if you haven't already. The Early Decision and Early Action application deadlines are this month. If you are applying through one of these plans, give that application top priority. Obtain applications for continuous admission. Rolling admissions applications where the sooner you apply, the sooner you'll get a decision, are, with a few exceptions, generally more concise and require less work than the rest. Get them out of the way early and you'll get an early response. Set a Thanksgiving goal to complete all other applications. Turning everything in before the holiday season helps avoid being part of the huge influx of paper that flows into admissions offices after New Year's Day. December Take the December SAT. Early Decision and Early Action applicants are notified of the decisions. Start preparing financial aid forms; Gather work materials. The FAFSA (Free Application for Federal Student Aid) and colleges' own financial aid forms are usually due in January. Attend one of the many financial aid workshops held throughout the city during December and January with your parents. Talk to students in your area who attend the colleges on your list. Many will be home for the holidays; taking advantage of the opportunity. January Prepare and submit the FAFSA and Institutional Financial Aid Applications. All financial aid applications must be completed as soon as possible this month. Don't wait until your family files current tax returns, colleges can update their calculations later with a copy of this year's return. Many universities have regular application deadlines from January 2-15. February The regular application deadlines for most universities are February 1 or 15. Final deadlines for institutional financial aid applications. These are best handled in early January, but there is still an opportunity for financial help if you act fast. March Regular admission decisions begin to be posted this month. Financial aid awards usually arrive with offers of admission or within two weeks. 233

234Meet with your high school counselor. As admissions decisions come in, discuss options and review financial aid offers. April Notifications for final regular admissions are sent by April 15. If you are on the waitlist and wish to remain on the list, please contact the university. Speak with an admissions officer to submit additional supporting credentials, have an interview, or provide anything else the admissions committee may find helpful in the ongoing review of your candidacy. Review and compare financial aid packages. Look carefully to determine exactly how much you will have to pay to attend each college that has admitted you. Don't forget to include both the amount you are expected to pay back and the total amount of any loans you will need to take out. Attend receptions and campus tour programs for admitted students. Be sure to meet with a financial aid officer if you have any questions or problems with the financial aid package you've been offered. Evaluate the quality of the contact you have had with the universities on your list. If you've been treated poorly, there's no reason to believe it will be any better once you're enrolled and then you'll pay big bucks for the privilege. You can commit to attending the university of your choice. May 1 is by tradition the official national response date for students to accept offers of admission. Your registration form and cash deposit keep your place in the class. Re-evaluate the universities on the waiting list. If you've been on the waitlist for one of your top choices and haven't received a final decision by mid-May, it's time to re-evaluate your chances for admission. Finish strong in high school. Avoid senioritis. Many of the best universities will not hesitate to withdraw offers of admission or place students on academic probation for the first semester if their academic performance has significantly decreased in the last term of high school 234

235Appendix XVI: Carnegie Foundation Survey: 10,000 Teachers at 306 Institutions Should Teaching Be a Primary Concern for Teacher Promotion? 62% All faculty 21% Research university 41% PhD-granting university 76% College of liberal arts Are your interests primarily in research or teaching? (percent saying teaching) 70% All faculty 33% Research university 55% PhD-granting university 83% Liberal arts college Does pressure to publish reduce the quality of teaching at your university (percent saying yes) 35% All Faculty 53% Research University 54% Doctoral Granting University 22% College of Liberal Arts Has the balance of importance between teaching, research, and service changed at your institution in recent years? 5% To teaching and outside the service 26% To research outside of teaching and the service 17% To teaching and the service 39% No change 235

236Appendix XVII: College Visit Guidelines for College Teachers: College Visit Guidelines/Points to Ponder Definitive Things to Do (or Don'ts) When Visiting a College Campus: 1. Do not visit on a Friday afternoon , a weekend, the summer or during a campus break or vacation if possible. Don't visit Boston in September or April (warm) or Florida in December or January (cool/warm). All of these approaches will give you a skewed picture of campus life; do it only if you have no other choice. 2. Do some exploring on your own before visiting the admissions office; This gives you an objective point of view free of admission office twists. 3. Visit the admissions office and go through the formal process for prospective students. You will need to get the official word on the application process and the current picture on the level of selectivity of the candidate evaluation. It's also important to give them a chance to meet you, even if it's just for a group information session. Schedule a personal interview ahead of time if the college offers them. Also plan to take a formal tour, even if you've already looked around. Don't get dropped no matter what, calling ahead is often the only way the college will have a record that you've been there, and this is often a consideration in candidate review. 4. Talk to students who do not work for the admissions office. Often, students who work with admissions are paid employees or get benefits like individual rooms or tuition discounts in exchange for speaking with prospective students and parents in person, in writing, or on the phone, and for arranging tours. They are usually very excited about their college experience and are rarely good students. 5. Sit in on classes. Contact admissions ahead of time about this; they often have prearranged opportunities with faculty in a wide variety of academic areas to allow students to attend freshman courses. If you don't attend at least one, you've missed the most important part of your on-campus assessment: the quality of the academic experience, and you may have missed the opportunity to speak outside of class with a faculty member. 6. Eat at a campus cafeteria. Make sure you have at least one meal in a main dining room. If you plan to reside at the university, you will eat 15-20 meals there; it is important that the offerings are to your liking (or at least digestible!). This is also an opportunity to talk to students who are not working for admissions. 7. Spend the night on campus in a dorm if you can. Most colleges have some sort of evening program; call admissions regarding availability The following suggestions are intended to provide some guidelines for compiling an effective campus visit/assessment report. Examples are provided to help visitors focus their thoughts around representative themes; they should be considered as such, rather than definitive within a given category. 236

237Initial impressions: Location: (Think about your experience arriving on campus and comment on the neighboring neighborhood. Ex: How easy is it to get to campus? Is there one there?) Appearance of campus: (What are your impressions of your appearance on arrival? Eg: Is it well-maintained, easy to navigate? Is there a lot of construction going on? If so, what kind?) Feel: (What is your initial sense of the environment one encounters upon arrival? on campus?Ex: Describe the campus vibe, the energy (or lack thereof), the sense of community. Do you feel safe?) Students: (Ex: Do they look happy? Busy? Committed to each other? Comfortable? Accessible?) Useful information gained in the course of your visit: Academic: (What is the most remarkable thing you learned about the academic program here during your visit? Ex: unusual offerings, strengths exceptional, changes between the new and the old. Note the level of demand in evidence.) Students: (What is the most remarkable thing you learned about the students here during your visit? Ex: What are you happiest about? Less happy or upset about? Are they committed to learning or passively wandering their way to a degree? Are they the ones you expected to find here? Why or why not? Where do you go from here?) College Life/Atmosphere: (What is the most remarkable thing you learned about student life outside of academics during your campus visit? Ex: Common/popular activities and activities; unusual offerings, exceptional strengths, new developments, campus safety information What does the campus and surrounding areas have to offer?) Admissions and Financial Aid: (What is new and significant to prospective students regarding admissions policies/approaches, financial aid offers/awards and undergraduate recruiting?) 237

238Thoughts and impressions after the visit: (Did what you saw and learned on your visit match the sense of the university you had before visiting it? If not, how was it different? How would you summarize the university in a brief comment? What kind of student/person could you see making a good match with this place? What would you tell others about this college/university as an option?) 238

239Appendix XVIII Tips for College Teachers on Preparing for College College Preparatory Steps to Take Throughout High School (especially important for freshmen and sophomores, but significant for everyone) Course Selection Following a Plan of college preparatory studies in school, emphasizing "the solid five": English, mathematics, social studies, natural sciences, and foreign languages. College admissions committees expect to see four full years of courses within these subjects, twenty strong academic courses, which is beyond the standard expectation for high school graduation. (If you do not have four years of each individual subject, for example, if you do not have four years of a foreign language, substitute another course within the other four subject areas, such as another history or English course.) Always choose the most difficult courses available that you feel you can do wellB or better. If you are an outstanding student and honors and Advanced Placement courses are available and appropriate, take them. If you try a course that is too difficult for you and seems destined to fail, switch to a less challenging course in the same subject if possible to maintain at least a B. Grades After evaluating the courses you took in high school, College admissions officers look closely at the grades you've earned in your strong academic courses, as described above. Obviously, the higher the grades you get, the better it is in their eyes. Consistency across the board and within each individual topic is also very important. Scores that go down and up, down and up, or just down all work against you in the admissions process. If you find it difficult to get consistently high grades, the next best thing is an upward trend where your grades continually and progressively improve. If your grades drop due to personal problems or family difficulties, work hard to get them back up as soon as possible. Keep working hard until graduation. The college you choose to attend will also obtain your final grades, and admissions officers will review that transcript for failing or failing grades. This can affect your admission or put you on academic probation early in your college career! Reading, Writing, and Study Skills Getting into college is only part of the deal! You need to work hard for another four years in order to graduate and earn your degree! The typical college requires much more reading, writing, and studying than anything you had to do in high school. The time to prepare is now, while you're still in high school. This will not only help your chances for admission and success in college, but it will make you a better student in high school right away. Read as often as possible. The daily newspaper is a great place to start and will help you stay on top of current events. Tabloids like the Daily News or the Post are a good source of short news and sports information, while newspapers like the New York Times and Wall Street 239

240The journal covers news and niche topics like business in a more in-depth way, closer to the approach college professors will take to class discussion. Start with any of them and work your way up to reading material that delves into the topics that interest and affect you. This can mean magazines like Time, Newsweek, and US News or books that deal specifically with current events, history, or biography. The important thing is that you acquire the habit of reading on a daily and continuous basis. Your vocabulary and school performance will improve and you will also be more aware of what has happened, is happening or may happen around you. Use what you've learned in English and other classes to help you recognize good writing and weak writing, both in terms of the story or plot the writer presents and the vocabulary, grammar, and structure through which he writes it. does. Have you done a good job of telling the story you were meant to tell or defending your position on an issue? Is it clear and easy to understand? Write more yourself, even beyond what is required for school. Keep a personal journal in which you write daily, write poetry, story or song verses, letters to family or friends, anything that requires you to put pen to paper and organize your thoughts on the spot. If you're a junior in high school this year, you'll be among the first to take the new SAT with the added writing section. This test will include multiple-choice questions that ask you to recognize various aspects of strong writing, as well as an actual written essay section, and will be scored as a third section of the test. The new SAT I will have a maximum score of 2400. Learn to write formally. College-level writing requires the use of proper grammar and structure, and a systematic, well-organized presentation of thoughts. Keep in mind that while you can do a lot, even as part of this program, email, instant messaging, web logs, or other similar forms of writing are not good preparation for the type of writing you'll need to do in college, unless you use the proper structure. and grammar. Learning to write well takes practice. Good study skills are also something you have to develop, personalize, and make a habit of. And they are critical to success in college. While you're in high school, work to lay the foundations: taking good notes in class, a quiet place to study at home or near you, a regular time you set aside each day for studying, and a systematic approach to using the time you have. . set aside. (For example: read/outline first, then the written assignments, and at the end review the test). If you find it difficult to do on your own, consider gathering a few classmates into a small study group that meets regularly. Work and Extracurricular Activities All highly selective admissions committees and many other colleges and universities look closely at the personal side of candidates when considering whether to offer them admission. This includes a close look at several different ways students can use their time outside of class. While individual commitment and excellence are rewarded in the admissions process, most institutions also care about how an individual functions within a group or team. A mix of personal and group activities outside of class often 240

241it provides the best means for admissions officers to get a sense of what makes a particular applicant tick. These activities can take place at home, at school, and in the community. Get involved in clubs, sports, or organizations inside or outside of school that deal with the things you really enjoy doing. Stay involved until graduation. Universities like to see evidence of dedication and persistence. If there isn't currently a club or group at school that does things you like, find others who share your interests and together talk to a teacher about sponsoring a new group. Community involvement can include church youth groups, volunteer work or community service activities, tutoring, cleaning, or anything else that contributes to the betterment of your neighborhood. There are many opportunities for this type of involvement, and it has the added benefit of helping you get to know your community and neighbors even better. If you have significant time commitments at home or at work, don't feel like you're at a disadvantage in the college admissions process because you can't play sports or join clubs. All colleges view work and commitments in support of your family as key examples of responsibility and maturity, important character traits in successful college students. 241

242Appendix XIX: The Academic Index from http://home.comcast.net/~charles517/ivyai.html How to calculate it; what it means If you're a high school football player who draws letters from Ivy League football programs, then you should know what the Ivy League Academic Index (AI) is and how to calculate it. Ivy League recruiters don't normally explain this. The information presented here is drawn from conversations with coaches and from various books available in most public libraries. Two important books on this subject are: "Playing the Game" by Chris Lincoln (Nomad Press); and "A is for Admission" by Michele A. Hernandez (Warner Books). The Academic Index: What it is The Academic Index is a measure used by Ivy League coaches to determine a player's recruiting ability. Approximately two-thirds are based on your standardized test score (SAT or ACT); the other third is based on your class rank (or GPA, if class rank is not provided by your school). The original purpose of the Academic Index was to provide Ivy League schools with a standardized method for admitting athletes (however, Ivy League schools now use Academic Index for non-athletes as well). The important point to understand is that all Ivy League sports programs must comply with the rules surrounding the index. Therefore, if your Academic Index is below the minimum level, you must raise it or you will not be admitted. Also, keep in mind that Ivy League schools may send you recruiting letters before they have calculated your index. According to the book, "Playing the Game," Ivy soccer programs typically begin their recruiting processes by sending out mass mailings to the more than 13,000 high schools in the US. Therefore, draft letters by themselves are not a guarantee that you will meet the A.I. minimum of a certain school. requirements Finally, keep in mind that the rate shown here is the same rough approximation used by Ivy League coaches. The actual Academic Index used by the Ivy admissions offices involves the use of the SAT 2 test, which most athletes have not taken. Therefore, coaches use the following approximation to get a rough idea of ​​your eligibility: Grade Point Index = (SAT Score /10) + (CRS) To use the formula, follow these three steps: Step 1. If you took the SAT, divide your cumulative score by 10. A 1300, for example, becomes 130. This is your test score quotient. Step 1-A. If you took the ACT instead of the SAT, go to Table 1 (see link below) and convert your ACT score to an SAT. Then divide it by 10. This is your test score quotient. Step 2. Obtain your Converted Rank Score (CRS) from Table 2 (see links below). Be sure to use the appropriate table for the size of your graduating class. 242

243Step 3. Add the CRS to the test score ratio. The sum of the two numbers is your Academic Index. The Academic Index: What It Means There is only one universal truth about the Academic Index: if you have an A.I. below 171, you cannot be admitted to an Ivy League school as an athlete. The Ivy League is unforgiving on this point, no matter how good the athlete. For those with 171 or higher, the meaning of the Academic Index varies from school to school. To accurately determine an athlete's recruiting ability, the Ivy League segments all AIs above 171 into four bands. The bands at each school are defined by the statistical makeup of the school's current freshman class. In each school, therefore, the numbers associated with the bands differ. The universal rules that define bands are as follows (if you're an Ivy League recruit, bear with this description; you should be able to understand it): High Band: This band starts with the school's average GPA and goes down to one standard deviation below the mean. ("Standard deviation" is defined as the measure of the range of variation within a group. Typically, 68% of all data points are within one standard deviation; 95% are within two. In In the case of the Ivy League GPA, one standard deviation (the deviation reportedly ranges from 12 to 16 points per school). Middle band: ranges from one standard deviation to two standard deviations below the mean. Low band: It goes from two standard deviations to two and a half standard deviations below the mean. Low-low band: ranges from two and a half standard deviations to the minimum A.I. of 171. Using this system, an Ivy League school with a mean Academic Index of 210 and a standard deviation of 14 would have its bands defined as follows: High: 197-210 Medium: 183-196 Low: 176-182 Low-Low: 171-175 Ivy League schools rarely, if ever, publish their I.A. averages. However, Harvard, Yale, and Princeton (in that order) are supposed to have the three highest median figures, probably around 220. According to the book, "Playing the Game," Dartmouth typically ranks fourth with about 212 in a row. (in order) by Columbia, Pennsylvania, Brown, and Cornell. According to the rules of the system, no school can admit more than 30 soccer players per year. Additionally, schools must specifically demonstrate that the prescribed numbers of recruited players fall 243

244in the raids as follows: High Raid: 8 players Med. Raid: 13 players Low Raid: 7 players Low-Low: 2 players In general, however, the following is also true about the meaning of your A.I.: 1. The lower your band, the better you need to be as an athlete. 2. Students who fall in the low-low band must be exceptional athletes (caliber players from all states who are being recruited by Michigan or Ohio State, for example). 3. Students with A.I.s above 220 are more likely to be drafted and do not need to be All-State caliber players. In fact, some Ivies have been known to boost their teams' academic ratings by recruiting football players with SAT scores of 1550 and virtually no chance of seeing game action. 4. In football, offensive linemen are usually drafted on the mid and high wings. Low-low bands are often reserved for impact players: quarterbacks, running backs, and wide receivers. 5. Ivy's admissions are tough, even for recruited athletes. All Ivy League schools start with a pool of over a thousand players, and then whittle that pool down to 30. So a typical low-low will be in the top quarter of their high school class, with a 27 in the ON (1220 SAT), and will be a first-team all-state player or even a high school All-American caliber player. A typical high might be an all-conference caliber player with an ACT of 33+ (SAT of 1460+) and a ranking in the top 5%. Finally, remember that the formula presented here is a rough approximation used by trainers. Ivy's admissions officers generally want prospective students to take the SAT 2 before calculating their actual GPA. (Ranking score converted at the link above for this article) 244

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